For opposition to adverse environmental conditions the mother nature constructed several protective mechanisms. Some animals fall into catalepsy, others – into hibernation, however the most perfect mechanism of survival is an anabiosis.
What is anabiosis?
To survive in extremely adverse conditions, such as drying or freezing, it is necessary to slow down several times the speed of course of exchange processes in an organism. The essence of anabiosis also consists in it. Everything depends on the content of water which reserves have to decrease on ¼, and even on a half from initial quantity. Only in this case the speed of physiological reactions will be able to decrease, without having done harm to an animal organism. Some scientists speak about a possibility of immersion of mammals in a condition of anabiosis by means of gases (carbon dioxide, argon, hydrogen sulfide)
The phenomenon of anabiosis is used in medicine at production of live vaccines, conservation of fabrics for transplantations, long preservation of strains of microorganisms.
Anabiosis of microorganisms
At the beginning of microbiology the attention of many scientists was riveted on extraordinary resistance of some microorganisms to drying or freezing. Still Levenguk noted ability a kolovratok to return to activity after almost two years' stay in dry sand. Later the English scientists revealed similar adaptive mechanisms in larvae of wheaten roundworms. Everything that was necessary for revival - it is moisture. Such pathogenic microorganisms as an anthrax stick, typhus bacteria, Asian type of cholera vibrioes were resistant to low temperatures. Even after freezing at temperatures, near absolute to zero, pathogenic bacteria are capable to keep the virulent properties.
Anabiosis of vertebrata
Along with the smallest organisms, insects also fall into anabiosis. However really impresses stay in a condition of almost death of the highest vertebrata. The science knows examples of detection in eternal ices of the frozen lizards which wonderfully came to life after defrosting. And this despite the fact that some cold blooded lucky persons spent not one decade at negative temperatures. Examples of detection of warm-blooded animals in the state similar to anabiosis are even more remarkable. In this way jerboas and hedgehogs can transfer the adverse period of year, and they cannot be woken in any ways available to the inhabitant. Cases of introduction to a condition of anabiosis of bats and even rabbits are known. Naturally, these experiments were made by the interested scientists. Now on the agenda other question – whether can the person, without consequences for health, plunge into anabiosis?