How looks and as the newborn's head before childbirth and is formed later, is thought over by the nature. The medicine monitored top trends of development of this part of a body of the child, and output a number of rules from which any rejection has to guard.
Right after childbirth, especially if they were the first, mummy is surprised to how the head of the kid – disproportionately big looks, slightly extended up. In process of growth and development of the kid of parents can disturb also the size of a fontanel, rates of its overgrowing. That distracted nothing from joy of motherhood and paternity, it is necessary to learn long before the birth of the kid about all nuances of his development including the principles of formation of a skull, possible aberrations and dangers to which they attract.
Form and size of the head of the newborn
The newborn's skull before childbirth and some time after them is fastened, practically, only by a skin cover. And it is not pathology, but a peculiar cunning of the nature – thus it facilitated to the kid process of passing in patrimonial ways. If the child is given birth in the natural way, but not during Cesarean section, then the shape of his head can be both round, and oval, slightly extended up, flat, ovoid. It is not necessary to be frightened if the head of the newborn is not symmetric or has characteristic postnatal hypostasis.
One more feature – the size of the head of the newborn. The head is disproportionate to a body, its grasp is more than the chest, at least, on 2 cm. Such indicators are norm, and deviations are called hydrocephaly and a mikrotsefaliya. Both has to become a reason for detailed inspection of the kid, carrying out a number of diagnostic measures.
What hydrocephaly is dangerous by
Too big sizes of the head of the newborn (hydrocephaly) can be sign of a congestion of cerebrospinal fluid in a skull. In the first months of life it does not attract any danger as most of babies up to 3 months has its outflow via special channels. After survey by the doctor of narrow specialization to the child therapy is appointed, and the problem is easily solved, without managing to develop into serious pathology.
What is a mirkotsefaliya
The mikrotsefaliya is most dangerous to the newborn. The little head is a sign of its underdevelopment which can affect formation of a brain long before the birth. Alcoholism or drug addiction of mom, pre-natal infections, patrimonial injuries, hormonal diseases happen the cause of such pathology.
What is a fontanel
The fontanel is the neogrowing stiff part of a skull at the newborn protected by connecting elastic fabric. It is necessary in order that the skull of the baby during childbirth could adapt to a shape of a small pelvis of mom and patrimonial ways. Fontanels on the newborn's head six, but it is possible to watch only one, the biggest of them. It is located on the top of the child and completely fabric only by 12 months grows bone. Its main functions:
- simplification of process of childbirth,
- providing optimum space for development of a brain,
- thermoexchange adjustment, cooling of a brain during temperature increase of a body,
- depreciation in case of falling.
To find the biggest fontanel, a diamond-shaped form, about 2 by 2 cm in size, on a head of the kid very simply – it is in the middle of its parietal part. One more fontanel which can be probed is located on a nape, and its size does not exceed 0.5 cm.
Throughout that period until the fontanel grew, it is necessary to watch how it looks. If the fontanel too sticks out over the surface of a skull or too sank down, it can be a signal of emergence of problems in development of the child. The fontanel can sink down against the background of the dehydration provoked by diarrhea, high temperature. Having noticed it, it is necessary to provide plentiful drink and to call the doctor. If the fontanel sticks out, and it is followed by changes in behavior of the kid, high temperature, vomiting, spasms if the vypiraniye is observed a long time, it is necessary to bring the kid to medical institution urgently.
How to look after a fontanel
The shape of the head, its size and the general development of the kid in the first year of his life are directly connected with a fontanel. The medicine does not put forward special rules of care for it. The most important is to ensure safety, to exclude risk of traumatizing a head of the newborn in the field of arrangement of a big and small fontanel.
In order that the head of the child was created correctly, it is necessary to put the kid periodically on a back, one and other flank. This measure will not allow parts of a skull to be displaced in one party, will provide the minimum load of a fontanel. Besides, there are several rules of care for a fontanel:
- when combing not to touch with hairbrush cloves,
- to wash the head of the kid with neutral means and it is very accurate,
- after bathing to dry the head promakivayushchy movements,
- never to press on a fontanel,
- on hats in a fontanel there should not be seams,
- to soften parietal crusts before removal baby oil or cream,
- not to hope only for the pediatrician and to independently trace the rate of overgrowing of a fontanel.
Parietal crusts can give trouble to the kid and influence speed okosteny areas of a fontanel. If they are intensively formed, represent a dense layer on a head of the kid, then it is necessary to grease them with cream not only after bathing, but also before it – in 20-30 minutes.
What to do if the fontanel does not grow
Not only slow, but also too fast formation of a bone tissue in a fontanel has to cause concern. If the fontanel does not grow, and the kid has already more than a year, then it can speak about existence of the following problems:
- development of hydrocephaly,
- metabolic disorder,
- disease of bone tissues,
- hypothyroidism (violation of functionality of a thyroid gland).
The reasons cannot independently be defined, and consultation of physicians of narrow specialization – the endocrinologist, the geneticist, the neurologist is necessary.
If parents note fast overgrowing of a fontanel, it has to be the cause for the address to the doctor too. It is not obligatory to wait for planned inspection which is performed at children about one year monthly, it is possible to come to policlinic and to ask to hold diagnostic events – to make the test of blood and urine, ultrasonography of internals, MRI of the head, in the presence of indications for this purpose. It is necessary if against the background of fast overgrowing of a fontanel symptoms appear:
- bad, short-term dream,
- lack of appetite,
- low indicators of addition of weight,
- unstable work of a GIT,
- pallor or cyanosis of integuments.
Fast overgrowing of a fontanel can be a signal of development of violations in formation of bone tissues – a kraniosinostoza, the mikrotsefaliya involving deviations in work of central nervous system and formation of a brain. Ossification of a skull in the field of the spring is considered early if it occurs at the age of three months since birth. Parents have the right to insist on performing diagnostics directed to identification of the listed problems with development. And here to refuse preventive measures even if there are no other symptoms of violations, imprudently.
You should not rely on opinion of grandmothers, girlfriends or neighbors at all if a shape of the head of the kid, rates of its growth or overgrowing of a fontanel cause concern in parents. It is important to realize that national techniques or self-purpose of vitamin and mineral complexes in similar cases can be not only useless, but also very dangerous to the kid.