The child's birth, unfortunately, not always and not for all becomes a joyful event. It is quite often possible to meet men who are inclined "to run from paternity", and sometimes and mothers give a reason for doubts. The analysis on paternity proof is designed to resolve similar doubts.
By means of similar analyses not only paternity, but also motherhood (for example if there is a suspicion that the child was changed in maternity hospital) and also relationship in general is established. The analysis on paternity proof can be made both in a private order, and upon the demand of court.
The analysis on a blood type
In some cases to exclude paternity fact, happens enough to compare blood types and a Rhesus factor of mother, child and alleged father (certainly, it is about those cases when the fact of motherhood does not raise any doubts). It is possible to call several combinations which absolutely exclude paternity: mother and the alleged father have the I blood type, and at the child – some other; the alleged father has the IV blood type, and at the child – the first, or on the contrary; the child has the II blood type, but neither at mother, nor at the alleged father is not present nor II, nor the IV groups, the situation and with the III group likewise is; both mother, and at the alleged father has a negative Rhesus factor, and at the child positive.
Blood test on group and a Rhesus factor can exclude paternity, but not confirm it. If on these indicators the man in principle can be the child's father, it does not mean yet that he that is, in the world there are millions of people with identical blood types. More exact analysis is necessary for paternity proof. That is the analysis of DNA.
Analysis of DNA
Molecule DNA – the carrier of hereditary information – is in a kernel of each cell of a human body in the form of 22 couples of chromosomes. Hereditary information is coded in the form of the sequence of four nucleotides – adenine together with thymine and guanine together with tsitoziny. DNA is divided into certain sites – genes, each of which codes synthesis of a certain protein. Today scientists know 25000 genes. Their nucleotide structure at all people is similar, but there are variable sites of DNA (they are called DNK-polimorfizmami), which meet frequency no more than 1% in population. Here such variable sites also compare during the analysis on relationship establishment in general and paternity in particular. Experts compare 16 variable sites of DNA. Coincidence of any of them can be accident, but the probability of accidental coincidence of all sites is equal to 1:10 billion. Considering that there is no such number of people on all planet, accidental such coincidence cannot be. The largest accuracy of the analysis is provided by capture of genetic material (blood, saliva or scrape from the internal surface of a cheek) not only at the child and the alleged father, but also at mother. There are factors capable to distort results of the analysis: blood transfusion or transplantation of marrow. The analysis on paternity proof can be done a minimum in half a year after these procedures.