Careful parents try to teach the child to solve problems to school. The preschool age is really favorable to start training in the solution of tasks.
However it is important that the child by this moment was able to consider, to measure, compare, understood a ratio of a part and whole. These abilities have to be a training basis, otherwise knowledge will be rather harmful, than useful. It is important to organize training in a game. It is necessary to begin with simple arithmetic tasks on addition and subtraction, in one action. Do not force training. If the child did not understand action, repeat. Let him actively participate in drawing up tasks. Explain that the task has to have a condition ("That is known in a task") and the requirement or a question ("That it is required to find"). Teach to raise it the specified questions for yourself and to answer them that will provide understanding of a task, will make the decision conscious.
To teach the child to solve problems it is correctly useful to work step by step.
1. To teach to make and solve problems in which the child a character. - Give to the child in hands 3 wafers. Then one more. Organize a conversation. - What did I make? (Gave me 3 wafers, then 1 more).-What question can be asked? (How many became wafers?).-So, Dima had 3 wafers. Mom gave 1 more. How many wafers became at Dima, you generalize. - There was less or more? It is (more).-How to solve a problem? (To 3 wafers to add 1 - 4 will turn out). If the child is at a loss, let will count wafers. Make and solve 2-3 problems of this kind. Similarly sort several tasks on subtraction. "Give to the child of 8 candies. Let he will count them. Ask to give 1 candy to dad". Ask: "What is known? What can ask a question? There was less or more? How to learn how many remained candies?".2. To teach to write down the decision. Solve a problem, focusing attention on the following: if there was more - we put the sign "+"; if it is less, then "-". Show how to write down the decision by means of cards on which figures and signs are represented (+,-=). Explain what is meant by numbers in record of the decision. 3. To set abilities by means of "tasks illustrations". For example, "At the forest edge 7 hares and 2 little squirrels sat. How many did animals sit at the edge?". Without sounding a task, create a game situation. Ask the child to arrange at the edge of hares and little squirrels. Suggest to make a condition, to raise a question, to solve and write down the decision. 4. To teach to solve oral problems. These tasks are sounded by parents orally. The child can only present a course of action described in a task. For example, "On a palm tree 5 pineapples grew. 3 removed. How many pineapples remained on a palm tree?" The solution of a task registers a numerical example. 5. To teach to make a task of the set example. Make an example of cards: 7 + 2. Let the child will think up a condition, will raise a question and will solve a problem, having complemented record of an example with the answer. So, gradually, showing creativity and patience, you will create the correct and useful abilities at the child.