The orphan children who are on full state providing, leaving orphanage, are a little adapted for life in society. The independence turns out for them too difficult task therefore, unfortunately, the percent of the orphans who managed to adapt successfully in society is so low.
1. In order that transition from life in the conditions of a boarding school to independent accommodation became for orphan children the smoothest and painless, the thought-over program of post-residential adaptation and social rehabilitation of graduates of child care residential care facilities which includes formation of elementary household skills, labor and social adaptation of orphan teenagers is necessary.
2. Unfortunately, cases when the graduate of orphanage is not able even to make to himself tea is not exaggeration, but sad reality. Life in the conditions of orphanage in the household relation is rather comfortable: pupils are provided with ready food, and do not know as this food gets to them on a table. They use clothes and household items, but have no skills of small repair of clothes, washing, cleaning of the room – all this does for them and for them personnel of orphanage.
3. The program of education and training of children in orphanage surely has to include systematic classes in formation of elementary household skills. The children who are brought up in a boarding school have to, as well as the children growing in family to have ideas of how to prepare elementary dishes, to bring order indoors in which they live, to make small repair of clothes, etc. The such experience will be more systematic, the stronger children will acquire the skills of self-service necessary for them in life.
4. Special "relations" at the orphan children who are brought up in orphanages develop with money. Without seeing direct dependence between work of adults and a material remuneration which they receive for it, and living conditions in which as a result there is a family, orphan children do not understand the true cost of money, have no skill to distribute funds for various needs and also have a weak idea of work. A task of the people working with orphan teenagers not only to acquaint the pupils with ways of earning money, but also with the principles of their rational distribution.
5. Social adaptation is also important for further successful life of graduates of orphanages. The child who is brought up in the conditions of a boarding school differs from the child living in family on the psycho-emotionally to development: he does not see how seniors carry out the social roles (the spouse, the parent), he poorly created skill of emotional attachment and adequate emotional response to various life situations. Especially it concerns the children, from infantile age who are in child care facility. Formation and correction of the psycho-emotional sphere at orphan teenagers requires special attention and special purposeful work.
6. Besides, graduates of orphanage have very vague idea of how life of society out of child care facility "is arranged". It is difficult to them to orient to what organizations to address to resolve elementary everyday issues: to receive benefits and subsidies, to get a job, send the child to kindergarten, etc. The problem is aggravated also with the fact that the circle of contacts of graduates of child care residential care facilities is limited: as a rule, they continue to communicate with the companions on orphanage, same inexperienced in the matters.
7. A task of the people who are engaged in social adaptation of orphan teenagers – to provide with it necessary social and pedagogical maintenance at least at first after they leave orphanage. In society it is considered normal when to the young man parents help to get a job, equip housing, to solve other social problems, it is simple to support psychologically in difficult life situations. Orphan teenagers are deprived of such support: they have no close significant adults whom they could ask for the help and council.
8. Means, social service providers have to undertake such function. The rehabilitation centers are necessary for graduates of orphanages. Employees of such centers at least partly will provide to the teenager support and the help during his adaptation to life in society after an exit from orphanage.