Otitis call a disease of any department of an ear. The disease has inflammatory character. Otitis is considered one of the most frequent diseases in pediatrics. Statistically practically each child aged up to five years at least once had otitis.
Classification of otitis
There are three types of otitis depending on the place of localization of inflammation:
- External otitis.
- Average otitis.
- Labirintit or internal otitis.
Such picture is quite often observed that originally the child had an external otitis. But as a result of the wrong or untimely treatment the otitis passes into a middle ear. If not to begin treatment, inflammation passes into an inner ear.
External otitis is an inflammation of an external part of acoustical pass and an auricle of the child. Doctors divide external otitis into two categories: when inflammatory process of an external ear throughout a disease — diffusion and when inflammation is localized in one place where formation of a furuncle — limited is observed is observed.
Average otitis — the most widespread option of otitis at children. Aged till 1 year among all types of otitis the inflammation of middle ear is diagnosed for kids in 90%. On the nature of a course of a disease the average otitis can be chronic, sharp or recidivous. Also two types of sharp average otitis are noted: purulent and catarrhal. During development of average otitis in the child there are five stages of a disease:
- The acute inflammation of an acoustical pipe — evstakhiit. Temperature increase of a body of the child can result only from presence of an infection. Complaints to feeling of congestion and noise in an ear are noted.
- Inflammation of a mucous membrane of a middle ear — catarrhal inflammation. The child has sharp inflamed ear pains. The feeling of noise and congestion increase.
- Doperforativny stage of inflammation of an ear of purulent character. At this stage at the child the strongest pain is shown. They can give pain to eyes, cheeks, a neck, teeth. Body temperature can increase till 38-39 wasps. As a result of carrying out inspection of blood the inflammatory process is diagnosed.
- Post-perforative stage of inflammation. A pus exit from ear pass results from break of an eardrum (perforation). Pain at the patient at this stage decreases, but hearing restoration does not happen yet. Temperature, as a rule, is normalized.
The chronic course of inflammation of a middle ear can be divided into three categories:
- Purulent otitis.
- Exudative otitis.
- Adhesive otitis.
Inflammation of an inner ear can be acute or chronic, to be limited or to have diffusion character. Inflammation can be characterized in a form: serous, necrotic or purulent.
It is possible to classify otitis and by quantity. There is unilateral otitis when only one ear, or bilateral otitis when the patient complains of symptoms in both ears underwent inflammation.
What causes of otitis at children?
Otitis at the child, depending on a way of emergence, is divided into three views:
If otitis in the adult occurs quite seldom, then in the child this quite frequent disease. It is connected with the special structure of an Eustachian tube. At children's age the ear pipe has practically no bends. With its smaller length, it has big width. At adults the Eustachian tube changes and looks absolutely in a different way. As a result of such feature the slime formed in a nasopharynx can get with ease into an ear and cause change of pressure in an eardrum as a result of ventilation violation. At the same time emergence of inflammatory process is observed.
Formation of external otitis most often happens in case of the wrong holding hygienic procedures. Owing to violation of integrity of an integument on an ear and hits of an infection in a wound, there is an inflammation of an auricle. It is possible to provoke external otitis even usual combing by a rigid brush. Inflammation of an external part of acoustical pass is possible as a result of hit and stagnation of water after the water procedures and bathing in the pool.
At the child and at the adult the developing of otitis of a middle ear is possible for a set of the reasons. The most frequent are the allergic reactions causing hypostasis mucous, hit of infections through injuries in an ear and emergence of inflammations in a nasopharynx. Usual snivels which were not cured in time can lead with ease to otitis of a middle ear. Also can be the reasons of formation of otitis:
- Chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis or rhinitis.
- Overcooling of an organism.
- Increase in tonsils also adenoidit in a chronic form.
- Decrease in immunity as a result of presence of some diseases (AIDS, a leukosis, rickets, decrease in concentration of hemoglobin in blood, deficiency of weight).
Developing of internal otitis most often is a complication after the wrong or untimely treatment of external or average otitises. But also also appearance of internal otitis as a result of getting injured or an infectious disease in an organism is characteristic. In the second case the infection gets into an inner ear through blood or brain covers.
Symptoms of external otitis at children
Each type of otitis at the child differs in the symptoms. External otitis is diagnosed for the kid by presence of hypostasis of an auricle. The child can complain of the naggers and painful feelings. And parents can notice that the ear has red color. If to measure temperature, then it is very probable that it will be raised. When the child opens a mouth or tries to chew, pain only amplifies. Increase in pain is observed also at pandiculation for an auricle.
Doctors allocate two types of external otitis: diffusion and limited.
At diffusion otitis the child has an inflammation of acoustical pass completely. Very often on skin of an ear blisters are shown. If the cause of otitis — a fungus, then it is possible to notice peeling of skin on an ear. Besides the child will feel quite severe itch.
Manifestation of limited external otitis is characteristic only if there is an inflammation of a sebaceous gland or a hair bulb within external acoustical pass or an auricle. After reddening on skin the furuncle develops. At the same time increase in lymph nodes behind an auricle is noticeable. Pain decreases only after the furuncle breaks. It is impossible to puncture an abscess independently at all. Thus it is possible to aggravate a situation only. After all pus comes out, there is a small deepening which will begin to live subsequently.
Symptoms of average otitis at children
Catarrhal average otitis has the following symptoms:
- Feeling of weakness and slackness.
- At the child the uneasy dream is observed. During wakefulness he is capricious and badly eats.
- The small child complains of ear pain which can be pulsing, sharp and shooting. If average otitis at the baby is suspected, then it is possible to press an ear trestle. If the baby has response a squeal and attempt to be removed from a finger, then most likely he has an otitis.
- Temperature can sharply increase up to 40 wasps.
- Decrease in hearing, feeling of noise in ears.
- Sometimes at the child the ease of a chair or a diarrhea is possible.
If in due time not to begin treatment, then already in a day the catarrhal form of otitis can pass into purulent. Pathogenic bacteria very quickly breed in ear exudate. Characteristic symptoms of a purulent form of otitis are sharp and very severe pain in an ear and feeling of congestion. Pain of subjects is more severe, than pressure upon an eardrum is higher. If in an ear there is a perforation of an eardrum, then the feeling of pain sharply weakens.
The serous form of average otitis has slow process. The liquid accumulated in an ear has not purulent character. It can last from several weeks to several months.
Periodic emergence of pus in an ear is characteristic of a chronic form of average otitis. Perforation of an eardrum very long does not grow. The child complains of existence of noise in ears and decrease in hearing.
Labirintit symptoms at children
Inflammation of an inner ear has a sharp and chronic current. It is possible to refer noise in the inflamed ear to symptoms of sharp internal otitis, decrease in hearing, dizziness and violation of balance, nausea and vomiting. Also at the patient the skin color on a face changes. If otitis has serous type, then in 14-21 days the symptomatology disappears and hearing is restored. If labirintit has purulent character, then violation of functions of an ear has resistant character.
If labirintit passed into a chronic form, then at the patient it is possible to observe a fistulny symptom, violation of the correct work of an inner ear, periodic dizzinesses and nausea. Among all listed symptoms the most important is the fistulny symptom or spontaneous nistagm towards a sore ear. It results from condensation and discharge of air in an ear as a result of formation of fistula.
How to treat otitis at children?
Treatment of otitis surely has to be carried out under observation of the doctor. Self-treatment can lead to adverse effects.
External otitis it is possible to treat in house conditions. Until the furuncle does not ripen and abscess is not formed, only spirit compresses and anti-inflammatory medicines are applied. The doctor can independently open a furuncle. As a result the cavity is drained and cleaning chlorhexidiny, miramistiny or other antiseptic medicine is made. Then the bandage with ointment which will need to be changed is applied. In case at the child the increased temperature or the inflamed lymph nodes is defined, then the doctor appoints antibiotics.
If otitis was formed as a result of fungal defeat, then antimikotichesky medicines of external and internal application are prescribed.
Treatment of average otitis is also most often made in house conditions. If the cause of otitis — an allergy, then antihistaminic medicines are applied. If otitis has the virus form, then antiviral medicines are applied. In the presence of the increased temperature the patient needs to give febrifuges.
In certain cases for children is more senior than two years doctors waiting tactics with use of anesthetics and febrifugal medicines is used. Depending on that, unilateral or bilateral otitis, the physical therapy on one or both ears is made.
If at the patient the severe pain and a purulent form of otitis, then perhaps surgical intervention for artificial perforation of an eardrum is observed.
Treatment of the labirintit is made only in the conditions of a hospital. If in time not to address to medical institution and to treat the child folk remedies, then the kid can lose hearing in whole or in part. Besides brain blood circulation and transition of a disease to meningitis or sepsis can be broken.