There are different age periodizations taking any given criteria of physical and mental development of the person as a basis. But on whatever approach any given periodization relied, all of them begin equally – with the neonatality period which covers a period of time from the birth moment before achievement of two-month age by the child.
Crisis of a neonatality
Many people are frightened by the word "crisis", causing negative associations. Parents are afraid of crisis of teenage age at children. Crisis of three years is less known, but too brings a lot of trouble by the adult.
Meanwhile, the psychology of development does not put any negative sense in a concept of age crisis. Moreover, human life begins with crisis of a neonatality.
This crisis is connected with transition from pre-natal existence in extra uterine. Within the theory of psychoanalysis the birth is considered as a trauma which consequences the person feels all life. It, certainly, exaggeration, but the birth becomes valid a serious shock for the child. He gets on Wednesday colder and light, richer with sounds, the way of receiving nutrients and oxygen changes, "zero gravity" which was provided by amniotic waters disappears. It is necessary to adapt to all this, not accidentally in the first days of life children lose weight. To facilitate passing of crisis of a neonatality, the child should create the conditions which are bearing a faint resemblance to pre-natal life. People did it intuitively long before origin of scientific psychology: the rounded shape of a cradle reminding a uterus, rocking which the fruit in a womb feels when walking. In the period of a neonatality it is possible to take the child on hands, without being afraid "to spoil", it is desirable so that he could hear heart beat of mother which he heard in a womb.
Features of the period of a neonatality
The neonatality is the only period in which the biological beginning appears "in pure form", without impurity of social. The child is born with a set of congenital reflexes (instincts). Some of them will die away soon – for example, a step reflex, nyryatelny (retardation of breath at hit of a large amount of water on the person), grasping. The last reflex had practical value at far ancestors of the person, allowing a cub to hold mother's wool. Food reflexes are of particular importance. The Sosatelny reflex works at any touch to lips or even the child's cheeks. The Glotatelny reflex is developed sufficiently, but the emetic reflex very easily conflicts to it therefore newborns often belch after a meal. From feelings the touch in a mouth and taste is most developed. The sight, muscular feelings is worse developed. Development of feelings does not happen by itself – impressions which he can receive only at communication with adults are necessary for the child. If the lack of impressions (touch hunger) takes place, lag in development is possible further. Such problem exists in children's homes where the personnel at all desire cannot pay enough attention to each kid in the period of a neonatality and an infancy. Approximately in one and a half months the child begins to show activity at appearance of the adult – to smile, wave a hand, to express emotions by voice. So the child reacts to any person, the differentiated reactions will appear later. It is a revival complex – main psychological "acquisition" of the period of a neonatality. Communicative development of the child which will continue at the following age stage – in the period of an infancy begins with it.