The word "prerogative" is especially often used if it comes, for example, to policy, to powers of high officials. But what means this term and how it appeared?
History of emergence of the term "prerogative"
The word "prerogative" arose at the time of Ancient Rome during an era of the ancient Roman tsar Serviya Tulliya, in the 6th century BC. The tsar issued the decree according to which all full Roman citizens, depending on security and situation in society, were divided into certain property classes.
Each of these classes was obliged to expose if necessary a certain number of the armed soldiers united in units which were called "tsenturiya". Therefore any Roman citizen on reaching majority was attributed to one of tsenturiya of the class.
Vote on the important questions mentioning public affairs also happened according to lists of these tsenturiya. To some tsenturiya belonging to the top classes, the tsar Servy Tully granted the right to offer new laws. Such tsenturiya began to carry an honorary title "prerogative".
Eventually this right began to be considered as an anachronism, and during an era of the Empire was finally forgotten.
What subsequently the term "prerogative" began to mean
During the Middle Ages era began to understand the right which allocated the monarch or other highest official in the state as the term "prerogative". Only such person could call or dismiss parliament, approve any act, pardon the convicted criminal, declare war or order to begin peace negotiations, etc. That is even in those countries where the power of parliament was strong (for example, in England), the head of state had very big rights. Though he not always used them fully, depending on circumstances.
That is in medieval Europe the term "prerogative" was meant as privilege of the carrier of supreme authority.
Approximately from the middle of the 19th century the sense of the word "prerogative" significantly extended. Now meant any privilege by it irrespective of to whom and on the basis of what it belonged. This right could belong both to private, and to legal entity and also to the state or the union of the states. Such meaning of the term "prerogative" remained up to our days. It is possible to tell that under the term "prerogative" designate the exclusive right which belongs to any official body, for example parliament, the State Duma.