The demand of experimental psychology arose with the advent of psychology per se. As any theory needs experimental confirmation, also researches are necessary.
1. In a separate branch of science it began to be allocated relatively recently, only in the 19th century. Then the psychology became interested in studying the sensual sphere of the person – feelings, perception, temporary reaction.
2. The German scientist Wilhelm Wundt became the founder of experimental psychology. Under his supervision the first-ever psychological laboratory with special technical devices and devices earned. Use of laboratory marked transition from a qualitative descriptive research to the most exact quantitative research. The method of an introspektion renounced to practice of psychological researches an experimental method.
3. At first the experimental psychology was engaged only in development of a psychophysiological experiment. But eventually turned into the scientific industry which covers a set of methods of researches in all directions of psychology. And, she not only classifies methods, but also studies and develops them.
4. So, the experimental psychology is a scientific discipline which deals with a problem of psychological researches. Three tasks are set for this scientific discipline: • To create adequate methods of a research; • To develop the principle of the organization of a pilot study; • To create scientific methods of psychological measurements.
5. The methodology of experimental psychology is based on such principles: • the principle of determinism (all mental phenomena are depending on interaction of an organism with the environment); • the principle of objectivity (an object of a research is independent of the one who conducts a research); • the principle of unity physical and psychological (psychological and physical represents unity, in some way); • the principle of development (mentality of the person – result of its development in phylogeny and ontogenesis); • the principle of unity of consciousness and activity (it is impossible to study separately behavior, consciousness and the personality. They are interconnected.); • principle of falsifiability (a possibility of a denial of the theory by statement of possible option of an experiment); • the system and structural principle (mental processes need to be studied as the complete phenomena).
6. At the beginning all achievements of experimental psychology had purely academic character, did not put to themselves for the purpose to use the received results in practice for treatment of patients. But over time their began to apply in many spheres – from pre-school pedagogy to astronautics.