The teenage age is considered crisis. Its physiological basis is formed by a puberty – puberty therefore the teenage period is called differently pubertal. During it children change especially strongly.
The pubertal period is an age when the boy becomes a young man, and the girl – the girl. At this particular time there are especially obvious sexual differences between children. The beginning of puberty on average falls on 10-11 years at girls and on 12-13 at boys. Deviations within norm for 1-2 years in both parties are possible. It is possible to refer warm climate and high-calorific food to the factors accelerating puberty approach.
As "trigger" of a puberty serves development of a gonadoliberin. Under the influence of this hormone of a hypothalamus the hypophysis begins to produce lyuteiniziruyushchy hormone which stimulates production of estrogen in a female body, and in men's – testosterone. These hormones also cause the changes characteristic of the pubertal period.
The main change – development and the beginning of functioning of genital bodies. At boys testicles which size did not change after achievement of one-year-old age increase, also the penis grows. In process of growth the testicles begin not only to produce sex hormones, but to perform the second function – to produce sperm. Approximately in a year after the beginning of puberty the member gains ability to an erection, and then wet dreams – involuntary eruptions of sperm begin. Girls have the first manifestation of puberty a consolidation around a nipple and growth of mammary glands. Ovaries and a uterus grow too, in ovaries the maturing a follicle begins, and approximately in 2 years there are the first periods. Sex hormones make also other impact on an organism. Men's cause the strengthened growth of bones and also a throat and vocal chords. For this reason the boys after the pubertal period are above the contemporaries on average on 13 cm. The phenomenon known is connected with growth of a throat as the mutation or withdrawal pains of a voice – it becomes lower. There is it not at once, before end of a mutation the voice is uncontrollable, it becomes hard for boy to speak and it is almost impossible to sing. At girls the voice changes too, but it occurs not so painfully. At girls under the influence of women's hormones of a bone of a basin grow in width, the volume of fatty tissue increases. It is postponed on hips, mammary glands, buttocks, a pubis and a humeral belt, forming characteristic "womanly shapes" of a body. Teenagers of any floor have hair on a pubis and in axillary hollows. The pubertal period represents cardinal change of hormonal balance. The new balance cannot be established at once, on it several years during which the teenager lives in a condition of a hormonal imbalance leave. Some unpleasant manifestations of puberty are connected with it: the increased perspiration, acne rash, differences of mood, fatigue, aggression. The keen interest in the changes happening to own body belongs to mental manifestations of the pubertal period. The last quite often become a subject of torments for the teenager. Also interest in an opposite sex arises at this age.