Grapes cultural are presented by long-term lianas of a shrubby form. Their berries, thanks to rich vitamin structure, long since used in the raw, dried (raisin), or overworked (among the most widespread drinks — wines, juice, compotes). In life also stones found application. From them receive oil. Leaves of grapes can be used in cookery. In more detail about what grapes such popularity deserved and where it is applied still, we will tell in article.
There is a huge number of types of amber berry which are divided into groups depending on certain characteristics.
- table grades (use fresh; they have big berries and clusters very beautiful on a view and with excellent flavoring characteristics);
- technical (for processing on juice, wine; usually berries and clusters rather more small, but contain a lot of juice);
- seedless (for the use fresh and dried);
- universal (can both be applied fresh and to be processed; the sizes of fruits — something average between table and technical options, quite juicy).
Besides that berries – it is practically always tasty, they bring enormous benefit. Read about advantage of such berries as sanberr, raspberries, asa, honeysuckles, sweet cherries, mespiluses, blueberries, a black mountain ash, watermelon, a godzha, a guelder-rose red, strawberries, a sea-buckthorn and a hawthorn.
- superearly (up to 105 days);
- very early (105–115 days);
- early (115–125 days);
- sredneranny (125–130 days);
- averages (130–135 days);
- srednepozdny (135–140 days);
- very late (more than 140 days).
- ordinary (differs in various ratio of sweet and sour flavoring shades, there are no other remarkable characteristics);
- muscat (in flavoring and aromatic qualities muscat notes of different degree of expressiveness are observed);
- solanaceous (with the grassy aftertaste close to taste of solanaceous berries);
- izabelny (differs in the special flavoring shade similar with strawberry, pineapple or taste of blackcurrant, expressiveness degree — absolutely different).
- Muscat (the grades having the special muscat aroma similar to musky);
- Riesling (name of white grapes and also the wine drink received from it);
- Fetyask (the technical grape grade and wine drink received from it);
- Isabella (the American grade differing in black berries which have a pulp very mucous and has characteristic aroma; treats late grades).
Amber berry is very useful because of contents: glucose, organic acids, mineral substances, proteins, pectins and vitamins. Therefore table grapes and juice from it are very often used for treatment of renal, cardiovascular, gastric, pulmonary illnesses. Red table wines have bactericidal and antistress properties.
Whether you know? The grade Isabella (hybrid of Vitis labrusca × Vitis vinifera) is forbidden in commercial winemaking in the States and the EU because of very peculiar aroma of wines from these berries and presence at methanol drinks.
The structure of grape berries can differ a little depending on a grade. Average values are given below.
- vitamin C: 10.8 mg;
- B1 vitamin: 0.069 mg;
- B2 vitamin: 0.070 mg;
- B3 vitamin: 0.188 mg;
- B5 vitamin: 0.050 mg;
- B6 vitamin: 0.086 mg;
- vitamin A: 0.02 mg;
- vitamin E: 0.19 mkg;
- vitamin K: 14.6 mkg.
- calcium: 10 mg;
- hardware: 0.36 mg;
- magnesium: 7 mg;
- phosphorus: 20 mg;
- potassium: 191 mg;
- copper: 0.127 mg;
- sodium: 2 mg;
- zinc: 0.07 mg.
Power value (European grapes, not important, green or red): 69 kcal / 288 kJ.
Power value (raw berries): 69 kcal.
- proteins: 0.7.
- fats: 0.2.
- carbohydrates: 18.1 (sugar of 15.5 g).
- water: 80.54 g.
- inorganic substances: 0.48 g.
- food fibers: 0.9 g.
- proteins: 0.72 g.
- lipids: 0.16 g.
- carbohydrates: 18.10 g.
- sugar: 15.48 g.
- saturated: 0.054 g.
- monounsaturated: 0.007 g.
- polyunsaturated: 0.048 g.
Whether you know? The asteroid (759) of Vinifer which opening is dated 1913 received the name from grapes. The astronomer Franz Kayser whose ancestors were wine-growers found a celestial body.
The berry and products received from it are allocated a set of medical qualities.
- all-strengthening, invigorating (thanks to the content of glucose, iron and vitamins);
- antiviral, antibacterial, anti-cold (thanks to phytoncides);
- it is capable to reduce the probability of appearance of oncological diseases (resveratrol, anthocyans, flavonoids, antioxidants are responsible for it);
- is responsible for normal work of a cardiovascular system, for its strengthening (thanks to potassium, magnesium, antioxidants);
- prevents obstruction of vessels, a varicosity, cholesterol adjournment, normalizes pressure (it is promoted by antioxidants);
- normalizes digestion process, metabolism, eliminates locks (such changes are influenced by the enzymes stimulating release of gastric juice);
- improves memory, cleans a liver, kidneys, normalizes their work (thanks to antioxidants);
- interferes with loss of sight (because of the maintenance of flavonoids, antioxidants and vitamins);
- normalizes nervous system, saves from depressions and insomnia, improves mood (because of the content of vitamins and minerals);
- slows down aging process, improves structure of hair, nails (thanks to antioxidants, calcium, potassium, iron).
The therapeutic value of grapes is big. Learn as use grapes in traditional medicine and why it is worth falling in love with grapes.
For a male body berry is natural medicine for maintenance of normal sexual function. The polyphenol which is contained in a plant intensifies exchange processes, so, delivery of useful substances to bodies through a blood-groove improves.
According to the Indian experts, during a number of researches it was established that grapes are also capable to overcome infertility. Regular intake of berry improves quality of semen that, in turn, involves emergence of bigger number of viable spermatozoa.
Especially important role for health of men is played also by such products: sunflower sunflower seeds, pumpkin sunflower seeds, quail eggs and root of ginger.
- essential oils support youth and elasticity of integuments;
- the phytoestrogen which is contained in stones is very close to estrogen therefore at the regular use of a product with stones the hormonal background returns to normal;
- glucose worries about health of nervous system, protects an organism from stresses, lightens the mood, banishes a depression;
- prontotsianida interfere with development of breast cancer and also are capable to combat it;
- grape berries can reduce harmful action of UV-radiation on an organism, so and prevent development of cancer of skin.
Have valuable properties for female health: feijoa, ginger, pumpkin sunflower seeds, pine nuts, quail eggs, green tea, walnuts, D3 and E vitamin.
- vitamin C as powerful antioxidant, supports the immune system, without allowing viruses and bacteria to get into an organism;
- vitamin D and calcium are irreplaceable at the time of formation of a skeleton;
- vitamins of group B are capable to prevent development of anemia;
- magnesium and potassium ensure normal functioning of a cardiovascular system;
- a number of minerals improves firmness of an organism before various infections;
- increases appetite, stimulates brain activity, restores forces.
Important! Grapes can be good aphrodisiac and tonic.
Grapes belong to those products which not only it is possible, but also it is necessary to eat during pregnancy and feeding with a breast, naturally, reasonably.
- well of vitamins and minerals which are so necessary for a fruit and mother;
- normalization of indicators of level of hemoglobin;
- existence of light diuretic effect that will help to avoid puffiness of extremities;
- existence of light laxative effect thanks to the cellulose which is contained in it.
It is desirable to use berries without thin skin as she is capable to cause strong gas generation.
Before eating grapes, the feeding mother has to consult with the doctor as berry is allergen. Also in it high content of glucose with which the children's stomach is not ready to cope yet. Therefore if the doctor allowed to enter grapes into your menu, then it is better to use it it is dosed, it is desirable house. If there is no opportunity is the berry, then from purchased it is possible to drink juice.
From places of growth to shelves of shop grapes cover the long distance therefore when choosing berry first of all it is necessary to estimate its look, but not a grade. If a cluster ripe and fresh, then all berries on it are located densely. If to stir up it, then no more than five berries will be showered.
All fruits have to be whole, dense, elastic, without other defects. Existence brownish tochechek is admissible that testifies to a product maturity. Than they are more dark, especially berries are considered as fresh. Existence on a thin skin of a light opaque raid is also possible. Should not be on a cluster of signs of decay. If it was cut off recently, then a branch at it green. The dried-up branch speaks about stale goods.
Important! Choosing grapes in the market, pay attention to wasps. They will always sit down on the most sweet and juicy product.
That grapes longer kept the useful qualities, it is necessary to know some subtleties of its storage:
- for storage of berry conditions with a temperature from 0 to +7 °C and humidity of 80% have to be indoors created, and in the room it has to be dark;
- that indoors berry was stored longer, clusters should be put in a box with sawdust a tail up though it is possible to hang up for a tail on a rope;
- in the fridge the product remains about four months (if temperature not higher than two degrees of heat) and if the humidity is 90%, then the expiration date increases up to 7 months.
Several useful tips about preparation of a vitamin product.
That the frozen product pleased you with the tastes, it is necessary to give preference to dark grades and those which can long lie. The cluster has to be freshen, berries — whole, dense. Before freezing they are washed and carefully dried up. It is better to dry in air flow.
The prepared clusters place in the cold place for cooling (it is possible to use the fridge). In a couple of hours they are transferred to the freezer, spreading in one layer on a pallet. When berries are chilled, it will be possible to package them on two-three clusters on a package.
The grade and color of berries are not important for preparation of jam. Everyone chooses a product on the discretion, and he prepares rather simply. The whole berries cook in sugar syrup, or pass them via the meat grinder, will pasteurize and mix with sugar.
- kilogram of grapes;
- 800 g of sugar;
- teaspoon of citric acid;
- glass of water.
- we separate berries from a branch and carefully we wash;
- sugar is mixed with water before full dissolution, we bring to boiling and we remove from fire;
- we fill in berries with syrup and we insist hour;
- we bring mix to boiling and we cook 40 minutes (periodically we remove a skin);
- we add vanilla and citric acid, we cook 15 more minutes;
- meanwhile we sterilize the jars and covers;
- ladle we spill jam, we close and we hide there where we will store further.
- antiquated (by the room of berries in a gauze and under a press);
- to pass via the juice extractor;
- to crush in the blender and to filter.
The received liquid if desired can be sweetened or diluted with water. Such product is very long stored thanks to a large amount of acid and does not lose the useful properties.
Simple recipe. We take 3.5 kilograms dark and as much green grapes. We separate berries from a branch, we wash, we touch, we pass via the juice extractor. The received juice is defended until foam does not become dense (about an hour). We remove foam. Cake is filled in with 500 milliliters of water and we add sugar half a kilo. We bring mix to boiling and we cook five minutes. We cool, we decant. We wring out the remained thick in a gauze. We mix juice and syrup in a pan and we put it on fire. We bring to boiling, but we do not boil. We sterilize the jars and covers and we spill in them juice. We roll up banks.
It is important! If juice turns out strongly sour, dilute it with drinking water.
If you decided to begin fight against extra kilos by means of grapes, then it is better to do it with use of home-made berries, or to go to places of their natural growth. It is necessary to protect the organism from pesticides which process clusters before transportation.
As for the diet, there is no special menu here. The main and only course in your diet for this period — grapes in any quantities. It is the best of all to alternate the use of dark and light grades, and it is obligatory to drink about two liters of water a day that there was no dehydration.
- the diet lasts four days therefore be ready to eat these days only grapes;
- before a diet it is better to consult with the nutritionist not to do much harm to the organism;
- it is better to keep to such diet on a holiday and to begin it during a season of maturing of berry;
- three days before a diet for preparation of an organism eat small portions of food, and in a day — pass to fruit (also and we leave a diet);
- refuse cigarettes and alcohol.
In cosmetology both berry pulp, and its stones is widely applied.
Mask from pulp for any skin. We peel berry from a thin skin, we mash pulp and we put it on a face and a neck. It will allow to saturate skin with useful components of grapes, will get rid of wrinkles and to level tone of the person.
Universal mask. Grape juice with honey mixes up in identical proportions. Mix is put on a face for 15 minutes. We wash water of room temperature and we put cream on a face.
Mask from oil of grape seeds. We warm up oil on a water bath a little and by massage movements it is rubbed in roots of moist hair. We distribute on all length. We hide hair under a hat for a shower and we wrap up the head with a towel. We wait for hour. Carefully we wash out hair.
In cosmetology also use: avocado oil, coconut oil, cornel, rosemary, carnation, corn porridge, black caraway seeds, chaber, horsetail field, fennel, celandine big (warthog), motherwort and lemon.
Mask for gloss of dry hair. In the blender we crush 75 grams of sultana grape and we mix with two egg yolks. We apply uniform consistence on roots of hair, then we distribute on all length. We wait for 15-20 minutes and we wash hair with warm water.