Around the world oyster mushrooms esteem not only as tasty, but also as mushrooms, useful to health. From them cook various dishes and at the same time treat blood, cardiovascular, nervous systems and also clean the organism from toxins and slags. Many fans of silent hunting even in house conditions manage to create the whole mushroom plantations. As to make it on the site why it is necessary to eat oyster mushrooms what to pay attention upon their purchase and storage to — you learn about all this further in article.
Botanists classify these edible fungi to family of plevrotovy. In many scientific grants, except the traditional name Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), parallel Agaricus ostreatus, Crepidopus ostreatus, Dendrosarcus ostreatus meet that confuses unaware mushroom pickers. Especially as the mushroom has many similarities to inedible and conditional and edible fellows.
Whether you know? The object found 33 years ago in the State of Wisconsin is considered the largest mushroom which ever the person managed to find. It was the immense sizes and weighed 140 kilograms.
Not to be mistaken, it is important to mushroom picker to pay attention to all parts of a mushroom and also to its age and the place of growth. Often oyster mushrooms are placed the whole sockets on the died-off wood fragments. It can be the fallen trees or foozles. Externally these representatives of plevrotovy are very imperceptible and are often perceived as inedible.
- large sizes;
- roundish hat with a diameter up to 30 centimeters with fleshy structure and an upper cut;
- ukhoobrazny form of a hat that at young mushrooms differs in camber on the center, and at old — a wide funnel or the plane;
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- smooth glossy surface of a hat;
- filamentous raid on a hat which appears only provided that the mushroom grows in places with the increased humidity;
- gray-brown shades of a hat which, depending on age of a mushroom, can be dark gray, ash-gray brown (at old copies the hat often fades therefore gains violet, yellowish or whitish tonality);
- continuous dense and short leg which sometimes strikes with the diminutiveness (its length can be from 2 to 5 centimeters, and thickness — from 0.8 to 3 centimeters);
- cylindrical shape and smooth surface of white or slightly yellowish leg;
- thin and rare plates. At young mushrooms always white, and at mature — turn gray or turn yellow;
- colourless smooth disputes and pinkish sporous powder;
- soft and juicy pulp at young mushrooms, rigid and fibrous — at old;
- lack of a smell;
- pleasant taste with easy notes of an anise.
Important! Oyster mushrooms have false fellows who differ in more dense hat with a leathery surface. They are very poisonous and dangerous to the person.
For the food purposes the people use only young samples which diameter of a hat does not exceed 7-10 centimeters. It is connected with the fact that at old copies all fragments become too rigid and are hard acquired. Besides, not to compare their taste to young oyster mushrooms in any way.
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But there are cases when mushroom pickers are confused by doubles of these nutritious and curative mushrooms. To it experts enlist Australian poisonous omfalotus (Omphalotus nidiformis) and pilolistnichek (Lentinellus ursinus). If the first version in our corner of the world, fortunately, does not meet, then the second, though is rare, but nevertheless gets to baskets of mushroom pickers. It is possible to distinguish the inedible brother from the real oyster mushroom on:
- slightly trimmed or velvety brown surface of a hat;
- dark and fragile plates;
- to the absent leg;
- light-cream rigid pulp;
- to unpleasantly sourish smell;
- to caustic and bitter taste.
Whether you know? Indecently expensive delicacy in the mushroom kingdom of the world truffle is considered. In the European markets of kilograms of these mushrooms costs not less than 2.5 thousand euro.
Experts warn mushroom pickers that certain differences can have also the real oyster mushrooms as in their nature there are about fifty types. Belong to the most widespread:
- oyster mushrooms whitish (are characterized by a light hat and yellow shades of pulp);
- oyster mushrooms rozhkovidny (have a light yellow color of a hat and the mesh connected plates reaching the leg basis);
- oyster mushrooms gold (the citreous funnel-shaped hat is peculiar to a look).
Know the cook in the whole Europe about oyster mushrooms. In some countries these unique mushrooms are grown up in agricultural grounds and private houses. They deserved respect for themselves thanks to the rich chemical composition which many experts call a well of the vitamins, major for the person, micro and macrocells.
Whether you know? The first-ever antibiotic — penicillin — was received from a mushroom.
- vitamins (all group B, C, D2, E, RR, N, J);
- it is well-cared.
At the same time the hundred-gram portion of a product contains about 3.3 g of proteins that 4.02 percent from day norm, 0.4 g of fats (0.62%) and 6.1 g of carbohydrates (4.77%) are. Besides as a part of mushrooms there are more than 89 g of water and 2.3 g of food fibers. But the most pleasant news that in so nourishing and nutritious product no more than 33 kilocalories.
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The authority of oyster mushrooms is caused by a wide range of impact of their components on the person. Getting to an organism, they start a difficult chain of physical and chemical reactions thanks to what the functionality of all internals is normalized. Besides, such food perfectly satisfies hunger. But physicians recommend to consume small portions and not to overload a stomach.
On structure and a sytnost the product is very close to meat and sour-milk products. Often nutritionists appoint it to athletes and for weight reduction. Besides, it is an excellent alternative of meat for vegetarians.
It is important! To derive the maximum benefit from oyster mushrooms, not less than 2 times a week are recommended to consume them in food.
- to clean an organism from salts, toxins and slags;
- to bring heavy metals out of an organism and to clean it from radioactive particles;
- to promote exchange processes;
- to increase comprehensibility of calcium;
- to normalizovyvat digestion;
- to improve work of organs of vision;
- to fight against helminths, including with ascarids.
Curative properties of mushrooms did not remain unnoticed pharmacology and official medicine. Today in some countries the scientists work on creation of anticarcinogenic medicines at the heart of which oyster mushrooms are put. Their counteraction of mutation of cells was scientifically proved about 10 years ago by Japanese.
Important! All oyster mushrooms, irrespective of a specific variety, demand careful and high-quality heat treatment. The fact is that among the mushrooms making these there is difficult acquired chitin. Therefore experts recommend to boil without fail a product even before salting and pickling.
Modern phytotherapists recommend to use these forest gifts, both in medical, and in the preventive purposes. Similar food is relevant for prevention of hypotonia and hypertensia, ulcers, gastritis, colibacillus, atherosclerosis, a stroke, cholecystitis, obesity, thrombosis. Besides, this excellent means on increases in immunity.
Also, mushrooms of an oyster mushroom use to lower pressure, to reduce risks of development of cardiovascular diseases, to lower cholesterol level, to interfere with developing of oncological diseases, to strengthen nervous system, to resist to an allergy.
Considering properties of the chitin which is contained in mushrooms which is practically not split in a human body, physicians categorically do not recommend such food to children 5 years and also to teenagers are younger. The fact is that at an early stage of formation of the child his digestive tract is not ready to so difficult digestion yet. And at teenage age these bodies endure crisis — children are strongly extended in growth, at them some bodies intensively develop, and others do not manage to function at the strengthened speed.
Also experts carry pensioners and people for whom violations in work of kidneys, a pancreas, gall bladder and other bodies of a digestive tract are diagnosed to number of those who should refrain from mushrooms.
Whether you know? In 2002 in the reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant strange mushrooms which could develop only in the conditions of radiation exposure were found. As a part of a paradoxical find the scientists found melanin. Substance was an analog of what protects integuments from solar burns.
Oyster mushrooms can do harm to people with individual intolerance of mushroom components and to allergic persons. Cases when during silent hunting the mushroom pickers unexpectedly begin to sneeze are frequent, and on skin they have a rash. It is caused by hit of a mushroom time in an organism at inhalation. Therefore such people should treat with extra care forest gifts.
The vigilance will not prevent also culinary specialists who will be engaged in transformation of a crude product into the exceptional work. And those gourmets who cannot refuse in pleasure to unburden to themselves the heart on mushrooms should remember that overeating will surely cause weight in a stomach, swelling, diarrhea and spasmodic pains. Therefore after collecting a forest harvest conform to the rules of cooking and consumption of mushroom products.
Not to be disappointed purchase, consumers have to estimate a condition of mushrooms visually. Of course, they have to be fresh and without wormholes. Besides, it is necessary to pay attention to coloring and a form of a hat. Experts strongly recommend to give preference to young copies. Therefore, the acquired product will be the small sizes, with gentle and smoky, slightly convex hat.
Whether you know? The mycelium grows very slowly. In order that to it 10-12 more centimeters increased, it is required to wait for year.
Do not hesitate to smell a mushroom. Ideally it should have no smell. It is the most reliable indicator of freshness. Unpleasant smells, cracks on a hat, yellowish spots — all this testifies to a low-quality product.
Examining a mushroom, surely turn it. Be not frightened elasticity of a leg — in it few useful components. But, nevertheless, when choosing it is necessary to consider length of a mushroom leg. It is desirable that it was not at all (the oyster mushroom can grow without it or is cut off under a hat).
Skilled mushroom pickers advise for determination of age of a mushroom to break off a small piece from a hat. It is worth buying copies with white juicy pulp, and here the fibrous structure of an interior is characteristic of the outgrown copies.
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Oyster mushrooms, as well as other their forest fellows, are inclined to fast damage. In the fridge such product can lie no more than 5 days. Though if you provide it temperature condition at the level of 2 degrees of heat, then, perhaps, it will be possible to keep a trophy week. Remember that every day of stay in the house the mushrooms lose the nutritional value, begin to darken, dry up and grow coarse. It is unlikely from such ingredient the tasty and useful dish will turn out. Therefore if brought oyster mushrooms home, then be not too lazy to prepare them fresh.
Important! It is possible to increase an expiration date of mushrooms up to 14 days, having packed them in a paper package and having put in the fridge.
If you plan to keep a delicacy till winter, freeze it better. In such look it will not lose useful substances and will be able to stay up to 4 months. If you before freezing boil a harvest in salty water, then it will be suitable also in half a year.
Before cooking of an oyster mushroom it is necessary to touch carefully, rejecting worm-eaten and low-quality copies. To the last it is necessary to enlist objects with any spottiness on a hat and a leg. On a table only mushrooms with a uniform coloring, flavourless and sharp tone transitions have to get. Also it is necessary to pay attention to consistence of pulp. If on a surface any dents, soft or too firm segments, suspicious points are visible — such samples should be thrown out.
Whether you know? The taste and advantage of oyster mushrooms in Europe the first were opened by Germans. After World War I they massively grew up them to live in lean years. Soon this occupation passed also to the territory of France. And here Hungarians introduced the newest technologies of production cultivation of these products. Their experience was adopted by Spaniards, Italians and even Americans.
After that the selected product is subject to careful cleaning of dirt. It is washed and left in a colander that residues of water flew down. Then forest trophies need to be boiled in the added some salt water and to crush. Experienced cooks advise to make cutting as it is possible more small. It is necessary to destroy the chitin which is present at structure of a mushroom.
Further the oyster mushroom can fry, extinguish, salt, pickle, to be added to soup, salad or sauce. Their universality is pleasant to much.
Experienced culinary specialists do not advise to combine a product with seafood and fish. Meat and a bird will be the excellent company for it. Also quite good tandem will turn out with vegetables, especially with onions. Pay attention that hot spices and spicy seasonings will kill pleasant natural aroma of mushrooms. Therefore it is better to refuse them.
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It is necessary to fry oyster mushrooms about half an hour, before full evaporation of liquid in a frying pan. If you plan to cook with them soup, then it is necessary to add them at the end of cooking. For salads this delicacy needs to be fried or boiled previously.
In order that this forest delicacy grew at your place, is necessary very little. Besides, mushrooms perfectly grow in moderate climatic conditions and are absolutely undemanding leaving.
Whether you know? The New Zealand laws forbid cultivation and import of oyster oyster mushrooms. In those areas the mushrooms are considered as parasites who has adverse impact on local vegetation.
First of all the gribovod needs to decide on way of cultivation of mushrooms. It is about intensive technology when forest trophies are grown up in artificial conditions, and about extensive which comes down to the natural environment.
After that it is required to prepare special substrate. It can be the wood remains, sawdust from deciduous breeds, stubs. It is better to give preference to cherry, apple, oak, nut and alder material. It can be used not only in the yard, but also in the cellar. Consider that the needles are not suitable for the similar purposes, and stubs have to be svezhesrezanny and without decay. It is the best of all to prepare half-meter chocks with a diameter from 20 centimeters.
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To begin cultivation skilled mushroom pickers advise in the spring. For this purpose it is necessary to pick up beforehand the shady town under shady trees. Such conditions will not allow a stub to dry up. For the best sowing the mycelium can be shipped for some period in water.
Stubs with oyster mushrooms can be put in a trench of 15 centimeters in depth. But previously it is desirable to cover a bottom of such deepening a layer of the boiled wheat grain. Then from above manually scatter the pounded mycelium. And only after that on the sowed substrate vertically expose the prepared logs. During a drought it is desirable to humidify a bed.
There is also other way of cultivation of these delicacies on a stub. It means infection with a mycelium of wood material. For this purpose it is required to apply about 2 centimeters of a mycelium on edges of a horizontal cut. After that the stub is wrapped up with a polyethylene film. It is possible to lodge fungal spores in an internal part of a stub.
Regardless of which you will prefer a way, cultivation of oyster mushrooms in house conditions demands time. Full colonization of bed requires about one and a half months. If all is made correctly, then from 1 kilogram of a mycelium you can quite collect about 3 kilograms of a harvest. For personal security you carry out all works with sporous powder in gloves.
Whether you know? Oyster mushrooms are mushrooms predators. They emit substance which will paralyze pervichnopolostny worms. The mushroom eats their nitrogen.
Now you know all secrets of oyster mushrooms. As you can see, it is simple to cultivate them houses. Besides, it is very useful product for your health.