If you love a sea small fish, and in particular a tuna, then this article — precisely for you. In it we will tell you that a tuna — it not only is tasty, but also it is useful. And still we will share some interesting recipes. However, we will also not forget to warn you as meat of this fish has also some dangerous properties. But, fortunately, not so there is a lot of them.
Description and appearance
The tuna belongs to family of skumbriyevy. This is quite large fish, some of her individuals grow to 3-4 m in length and have 500-600 kg of weight. Though, in principle, the sizes of these representatives of family can differ considerably. There are small fishes of all 50 cm long and weighing up to 2 kg. A tuna — the predator having the spindle-shaped, narrowed to a tail body. The tail stalk is equipped with a big leathery keel.
The back fin is presented in the sickle form that helps high-speed and long swimming. This fish — the excellent swimmer, she is capable to disperse up to 90 km/h. Chasing production, she without problems overcomes the huge distances. The main food for it is her smaller fellow — a sardine, a mackerel, and still cancroid, mollusks.
The tuna is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Quiet, Atlantic, Indian oceans. But he can be met also in more cool midlatitudes, for example, in the Black, Azov or Japanese seas.
Whether you know? The French nicknamed a tuna sea veal. And the thing is that color of pulp of this fish not pale, but bright red, as at beef as its meat contains protein the myoglobin saturated with iron. By the way, once long ago the tuna did not enjoy wide popularity. For the first time it began to be preserved only in 1903 in the USA. And that only because there was a sharp slowdown of catch of a sardine. But over time such sea small fish was very much fallen in love to people and became really popular which is and today.
In the nature there are about 50 types of a tuna, the main are:
- Ordinary or red tuna. Loves waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas, northeast regions of the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico. It is also possible to meet by its time also near Greenland, in the Barents Sea. The largest representative of 4.58 m in size tightened on 684 kg!
- Atlantic or chernopery, black. The smallest among all types — shoots up no more than 1 m and there are at most 20 kg. He lives too less than the others — 4-6 years. He has yellowish sides and a back fin with a yellow outflow. Loves exclusively warm seas of the western Atlantic.
Learn what fish the most useful how to choose fish as to fry her and whether cod-liver oil is useful.
- Blue. The hugest. Can reach 4.6 m and 680 kg. Its big scale on a sideline looks like an armor. He lives much where — from tropical to polar waters of the World Ocean. It has the greatest industrial value.
- Yellowfin or zheltokhvosty. Lives in tropical and midlatitudes (an exception — the Mediterranean Sea). Length — at most 2.4 m, weight — 200 kg. Back fins of saturated-yellow color. The adult individual on a silvery tummy has 20 vertical strips.
- Albakor, dlinnopery or white. He has the most tasty meat which is appreciated more than the others. He weighs about 20 kg. It is widespread in moderate and tropic latitudes of the World Ocean.
Structure and caloric content
Meat of a tuna contains 95% of protein which a human body practically all acquires. At fish there are also such necessary amino acids and a minimum of fats and calories. She is called a dietary product, 100 g of a tuna store in itself only 100 kcal. Therefore in a diet of athletes this small fish takes extremely important place. Substances from which hair and skin look beautiful and well-groomed — selenium and iodine are a part of a tuna, the last also makes active a metabolism. You will find in it also almost full range of vitamins of group B and not only them.
Important! The tuna externally, to taste and even in the chemical composition is similar to meat of animals. Therefore this fish will become fine option for those who for some reason need to cease to use meat.
Useful and medicinal properties
About beauty of skin and hair with which finding the tuna helps and you already know about its dietary properties. Now we will talk about other most useful properties of this inhabitant of sea depths:
- well influences a cardiovascular system, helps splitting of cholesterol and normalizes blood circulation;
- promotes disposal of skin diseases and other allergic rash on skin;
- in a tuna there are no carbohydrates (only if it is prepared without oil) that does it useful to diabetics;
- eating this fish, you, without knowing that, you carry out to yourself prevention of oncological diseases as the enzymes which are contained in it suppress activity of the free radicals activating development of tumors;
- the tuna is advised is to people at disorders of nervous system and also at a depression;
- brings toxins out of a liver, normalizes development in it useful enzymes;
- helps to overcome raised HELL;
- protects bones of old men from osteoporosis and other illnesses of skeletal system;
- promotes control of processes of aging, helps to strengthen immunity, normalizes metabolism;
- normalizes the reproductive sphere;
- has positive impact on work of a brain.
Whether you know? Tuna dishes — the integral component of a diet of students and research associates of Harvard and Berkeley. This small fish by all means is present at their menu for productive work of a brain.
Tinned: selection criteria
What it is worth paying the attention upon purchase of a tinned tuna to:
- For a start look at a jar from under canned food. It is good if on it there are no side seams as rust in these parts appears or metal is oxidized. Do not take the deformed jar, in such can pressure is redistributed that harmful affects its contents.
- Date of production is squeezed out, as a rule, from within a jar. At it there has to be also an assortment sign, number of change, the index of fishing industry — the small letter of River. The marking made paint has to be a rack and not be wiped even under the influence of moisture.
- That the small fish started up juice and found the most delicate taste, about 3 months are necessary. It is better to take a jar with date of production — about 3 months ago.
- Stir up to bank: if inside there is a lot of liquid, then there will be few small fish.
- If on a can it is written albakor, it demonstrates that before you precisely a tuna, but not its fake. You remember that an albakor — the most valuable version.
- Pay attention to the producer. On quality Japan, Italy, Spain divide superiority here. However, at us you will be able to meet canned food more often from Thailand and the Seychelles where quite often save on quality. If you saw the canned food made in the Russian Federation, they are 100% from the frozen fish.
- Having already opened a jar, consider meat. A tuna rather big by the sizes, and conscientious producers put it in capacity an integral piece. Such meat with large fibers, without stones. If is in a jar to steam of pieces or fish is stratified, then before you or a low-quality tuna, or not it at all.
Important! Parasites and helminths in a tuna — the phenomenon extremely rare so there is canned food from this small fish you can safely.
Dangerous properties of meat
Despite all the usefulness, the tuna has also dangerous properties. For example, it is better not to eat meat of very large representatives of this small fish as for their long life in them heavy metals quite often accumulate. The tuna is contraindicated to the women bearing or feeding the child and little children (it is less than three years). Well and, of course, should not eat this fish allergic persons and people with individual intolerance of a product. They say that it does not need to be eaten also with that who has a renal failure. But here it is better to consult with the attending physician.
It will be interesting to learn - how tasty to prepare a grouper, and fresh fish fish soup.
How to prepare
In spite of the fact that the tuna — fish fat, having stayed too long on fire, she begins to dry. So when cooking consider this moment. If you do not know that to prepare from tuna fillet, here for you several simple recipes.
The baked tuna:
Warm the wind oven to 220 degrees. Oil a baking sheet vegetable. Cut fish on stakes 2.5 cm thick everyone. Put them in a mold, salt also spices, grease top with in advance kindled butter. Bake 7-10 minutes.
Heat on a plate a frying pan with three tablespoons of olive oil. Wash out fillet under water, let's it flow down. For the best taste a small fish it is possible to bread in the shaken-up egg and white-black sesame. Fry each fillet from two parties on average fire no more than 12 minutes.
Cut fillet on slices 2 cm thick, put in capacity. Make marinade. If at the rate on 300 g of fillet, then there are enough 30 ml of soy sauce and 30 ml of white wine. Slightly rub a small fish with salt and lower in marinade for day. That fillet was pickled evenly, during this time turn it 2-3 times. At the end merge marinade, dry slices. Give with green onions under olive oil. If desired, it is possible to sprinkle a little bit lemon juice before giving. Tuntsovy canned food it is possible to make too houses. There is nothing supernatural in it.
Canned food from a tuna home-style:
- tuna — 1 piece;
- salt — 1 tablespoon;
- vegetable oil — 100 ml;
- black pepper (peas), bay leaf — on 8-10 pieces;
- parchment, sleeve for baking.
Exempt a big fish from guts, take away fins. Wash up and dry up. For canned food we need only a carcass (the head of fish can be applied somewhere else). Cut it with pieces up to 7 cm thick and salt, having covered pieces with its thin layer. Spread parchment in convenient capacity cross-wise and in the formed dredging pour oil, pour spices. Lower a small fish there, tie paper on knot. Accurately, without overturning, put this parcel in a sleeve for baking, properly record edges, for example, having connected them above a bunch. Lower in the boiling water that the parcel did not touch a bottom. You cook not less than 4 hours on average fire, from time to time adding water. Pull out a parcel, let will cool down. Canned food can be put in salads, pastes, baked puddings.
Tinned tuna in olive oil:
- sea salt;
- olive oil;
- black pepper (peas);
- banks with covers.
Brainless fish and a backbone you cook with salt (100 g of salt on 1 l of water) about half an hour — it is necessary that meat without problems separated from stones. Do not digest, otherwise the small fish will lose taste and a smell. Pull out a small fish, cool, dry, remove a thin skin and stones. Divide her into big chunks, having removed black parts. In everyone sterilized to bank throw 5-6 small peas of black pepper, lower fish fillet there.
We choose tasty sprats.
Try to build two layers, having laid everything it is the most dense. 2 cm to an edge banks have to remain blank. Fill in with olive oil 5 mm higher than fish (to top of a throat of a jar there have to be more than 1 cm). Let will a little have a rest. Do not forget to remove a spoon air bubbles. If it is necessary, add still a little bit oils.
Close jars, lower in wide capacity, having placed before it on a bottom fabric or a wooden lattice, pour cold water that it did not get to the brim jars. Cover from above with something and sterilize not less than 1 hour from the boiling moment. Cool jars, without getting them from capacity and without uncovering with them at all. Everything, the product is ready.
Whether you know? In the capital of Japan, Tokyo, there is a traditional annual tuntsovy auction. A few years ago owners of network of sushi restaurants of Kiyomura Co set a record at this auction, having given 728.1 thousand dollars for one big fish. The weight of the sold lot tightened on 269 kg. Even it is terrible to imagine how much sushi from this fish cost then to visitors of network of restaurants!
Now you know not only about all useful properties of a tuna, but also have several tasty and simple recipes in the arsenal. They will precisely be useful for fans of a sea small fish. The main thing, do not forget about contraindications!