The ankle joint belongs to the most important elements of a human skeleton. It is that support which holds the weight of all body. The joint connects a shin and foot. Thanks to such joint of people can stand and move legs. Daily load of this joint is very big therefore it is often subject to various injuries. Special exercises will help to strengthen an ankle, to restore it after damages. Let's consider features of this gymnastics.
Anatomy of legs
The ankle belongs to complex bone structures as it is constructed not of two, and of three bones: shin bones (small and tibial) and collision. The lower surfaces of tibial bones form a peculiar fork which covers the block of a collision stone.
This connection plays a role of an axis around which foot moves. The side ends of fork, that is shoots of tibial bones, are called anklebones. Articulate surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilaginous tissue which serves as the shock-absorber.
That stones did not break up, kept together and functioned, the whole system of sheaves is involved.
They can be divided into three groups:
- The fibers tying together tibial bones and interfering their turns.
- External side fibers which fasten a joint outside.
- The deltoid sheaf strong connects collision, calcaneal and boatshaped stones of foot with an internal anklebone.
Tapes of sheaves help foot to move and at the same time limit its movements. Muscle tissues allow feet to carry out various movements.
They are divided into three groups too:
- Sgibateli are located on a back surface of an ankle.
- Razgibateli took place on a front part of a joint.
- Instep supports and pronator are responsible for the movement of a foot inside and outside.
The mobility of a joint in many respects depends also on the Achilles tendon, the largest in our body. It lasts from a gastrocnemius muscle to a calcaneal bone. The sinew provides additional protection of an ankle. At the same time it belongs to the most weak spots and is often injured.
Whether you know? The mobility of an ankle changes with age: at small children it is easier bent to the foot back, and at adults — to its sole.
The ankle joint is braided by a dense grid of blood vessels. Thanks to a set of veins and arteries in it there takes place uninterrupted process of a metabolism.
Leg injuries and their reasons
The system of sheaves quite strong, it reliably holds stones in a joint and allows them to move in a due measure. But one sharp and wrong movement by foot, for example, its podvorachivaniye, and fastenings from sheaves can not sustain unexpected loading. The joint is unnaturally twisted, and sheaves are injured.
The most frequent reasons of traumatizing an ankle:
- circulation in footwear high-heeled;
- the excessive tension of a joint at sports trainings;
- hard physical activity;
- the wrong landing during a jump or falling;
- the foot turned up;
- movement on an uneven or slippery surface;
- striking a blow on a leg.
As a result, different articulate elements can be damaged: bones, muscles, sheaves and sinews.
Learn what exercises by Bubnovsky's method for weight loss, for knee joints, for a neck, for coxofemoral joints, for a shoulder joint are considered as the most effective.
By the form the damaged fabric distinguish the following injuries of an ankle:
- bruise — violation of muscle tissue;
- dislocation — injury of bones at which their situation is in whole or in part displaced;
- change — injury of bones as a result of falling or blow;
- stretching or rupture of sheaves.
Distinguish 3 severity of injuries of an anklebone:
- The small damage (for example, sprain) at which the rupture of articulate fibers is observed, stability and functionality of a joint is not lost.
- Sheaves are broken partially off that causes severe pain, but the joint functions.
- Sheaves are broken off completely that causes an acute pain at any movement, puffiness and hemorrhages is observed, the joint does not function. It is a serious trauma at which treatment the urgent treatment is necessary, and terms of recovery drag on.
Whether you know? The person whose weight of 60 kg, taking one step, gives load of the feet and ankles about 240 kg. For day of his leg can bear cargo to 2.5 million kg.
Signs of a weak ankle
Frequent leg injuries can be a consequence of a weak ankle joint.
It is possible to distinguish the ankle needing strengthening on the following manifestations:
- sprain cases after a jump;
- after long walking feeling of pain in the third and fourth toes;
- frequent podvorachivaniye of a foot in shoes on heels;
- external manifestations: in a standing position it is visually noticeable that one or both feet warped inside.
Gymnastics for an ankle joint
The physiotherapy exercises play an important role in treatment of diseases and injuries of an ankle joint. Drug treatment without gymnastics is ineffective. Only at certain physical activities of an anklebone perhaps complete recovery of its functioning.
At different stages of recovery different types of exercises are carried out. The complex of gymnastic occupations and time of their beginning are defined by the attending physician, making a start from weight of damage and from specifics of already undergone treatment.
Treatment of arthrosis medicines has to be complemented with physical education. Only under such condition the therapy will be the most effective. The purpose of remedial gymnastics is to improve a blood-groove in a sore joint, to strengthen muscles and to make sheaves more elastic. The simple exercises easily feasible in house conditions:
- To put both hands on an anklebone, carefully and slowly to turn foot to the right and to the left.
- To lay down on a back, to bend legs in knees, feet stand on a floor. To lift feet as it is possible above, without tearing off socks from a floor, then again to lower them on a floor.
- Lying on a back with the extended legs, to bend feet forward and back, extending socks to itself, from itself.
- In the same situation to carry out rotation by foot clockwise, then against.
- To sit down on a chair, feet firmly stand on a floor. To serially raise heels and socks.
- Sitting on a chair, feet of the crossed legs stand on socks. To slowly lower completely feet on a floor and again to lift on socks.
- In the same situation under legs to put a piece of fabric or to present that it lies there. Fingers of the affected leg to try to take a rag.
- Now to put a rolling pin on a floor and foot to roll it forward and back.
- Sitting or lying, to bend and unbend fingers of sick foot.
- In conclusion to the maximum to spread wide toes. To repeat 5 times.
Exercises need to be done slowly, without straining joints. It is necessary to begin occupations with the minimum loading, gradually increasing it. The training has to be regular, otherwise it will not yield desirable result. The doctor has to order all exercises.
Important! The gymnastics is contraindicated during exacerbation of arthrosis, especially at inflammation and hypostases.
For rehabilitation after an extension and a change
It is simply impossible to restore normal work of an ankle after a serious trauma without special physical education. Sets of exercises for rehabilitation differ in complexity and loading. The type of gymnastics, its frequency and duration are chosen by the doctor, in view of complexity of a trauma (fracture or sprain) and extent of recovery. Foot should be moved smoothly and carefully, to increase loading gradually.
Exercises on a chair:
- To bend and unbend feet (forward and back).
- To rotate a foot clockwise and against it.
- To roll soles a foot from a heel on a sock and back.
- To put feet on socks and to move heels, to reduce and part.
- To put a rolling pin on a floor and to roll it outer side of a foot.
- To roll a rolling pin foot inside.
- To extend a leg and a sock to last forward.
- Foot stand on socks, and press heels the imagined spring.
- Fingers to try to take a small thing from a floor and to take a little it.
For development of an ankle the load of it has to increase gradually.
Occupations serve this purpose in a position standing, leaning on a chair back:
- To rise directly and, holding a stool, to become serially on fingers and on heels.
- To redistribute the mass of the body in turn on each leg.
- To squat, without lifting a foot.
- To go on the place on fingers and on heels.
- To walk on an external edge of a foot and on internal.
At first trainings take place under observation of the expert. But then it is possible to be engaged in house conditions.
All the time of restoration an ankle remains bandaged by rubber bandage. Only for charging it is removed.
For prevention and strengthening of the weakened joint
To reduce risk of dislocations and fractures, it is necessary to strengthen anklebones. Regular performance of simple exercises will help with it:
- Circulation on the house on socks, on the Piglet, on the external and internal surfaces of a foot.
- Having taken seat on a chair and having extended legs, on weight to draw feet circles.
- To roll soles of feet a rolling pin.
- To scatter small buttons or other small features and to pace about the room, bringing together them by toes.
- To jump on a jump rope.
- To run about the room on socks.
- To go barefoot (summer) on sand or pebble. The massage rug can replace pebble.
For strengthening of an ankle joint also recommend gymnastics Beloyar and the Kalmyk yoga.
Are very effective in strengthening of an anklebone of exercise with rubber bandage from drugstore:
- In a sitting position to connect a foot together by a rubber tape and, having put them on heels, to try to part socks in the parties.
- To do the same exercise, having only already crossed legs. At the same time internal surfaces work a foot.
- To tie rubber bandage one end to a motionless support, and to put on the second foot. It is necessary to stretch a tape, pulling a foot on itself.
At home it is desirable to go barefoot without room footwear. It is better to replace slippers with socks.
Features of classes in Bubnovsky's technique
Doctor S.M. Bubnovsky developed a new method of treatment of joints and a backbone — a kineziterapiya (treatment by the movement). Percent of treatment of patients with this way very high that made a method very popular. Features of a kineziterapiya:
- In treatment no medicines are applied.
- Only reserves of own organism which are enough for recovery are used.
- The course of treatment includes only physical exercises.
- The gymnastics is carried out on multipurpose exercise machines with existence of functions of anti-gravitation and a decompression which facilitate load of joints and do a training safe.
- Gymnastic complexes are developed for each patient individually after performing diagnostics.
- The gymnastics accustoms to special gym under the leadership of the doctor, then can proceed at home.
- Long, but productive course.
Several exercises by Bubnovsky's technique:
- To lay down a back on a floor, to put direct legs on width of shoulders. A foot to extend thumbs as much as possible forward, then to itself.
- In the same situation to cramp thumbs in the direction to each other so that the internal surface of a foot concerned a floor, and then to the maximum to part them in the parties.
- Foot to squeeze all fingers, then to rastopyrivat.
- To twist a foot to the left and to the right, trying to draw with a thumb a circle.
- To become socks on a ladder step and, holding on to the banister, pruzhinisto to lift and lower heels.
- To rise up a corridor ladder, stepping on steps only socks, and by a heel to do elastic movements.
After gymnastics it is possible to lower a foot in cold water, and then to pound a towel. The warming effect will remain for half an hour.
Recommendations about performance of LFK
For bigger advantage of physiotherapy exercises it is necessary to consider such recommendations:
- The gymnastics for any purpose needs to be chosen not independently but only on doctor's orders.
- All movements have to be smooth, measured and not sharp.
- Any feeling of pain is a signal for the termination of occupations.
- It is impossible to load an ankle with the large volume of occupations at once strongly. Loading has to increase gradually.
- All exercises need to be carried out, strictly following instructions of the doctor.
Injuries of an ankle joint happen as at athletes who excessively load the legs, and at those people who lead an inactive life therefore they get to a zone of risk all. It is very simple to be engaged in LFK.
Such occupations are useful to strengthening of anklebones for prevention and recovering from a disease.