All of us know about useful properties of vitamins of group B, however not any of us can call what it substances and what they are necessary for our organism for. To meet lacks in the knowledge, it is necessary to begin with something. For example, from biotin (it is vitamin H, B7 vitamin, R coenzyme, Bios 2).
Description and general characteristic
In spite of the fact that biotin is called sometimes microvitamin as the daily need for it, generally, is very insignificant, this substance is worth it to talk about it in detail.
It is a little history
Acquaintance of mankind to biotin began on start of last century and took place in several stages. So, in 1901 the scientists found out that barmy mushrooms grow under the influence of a certain substance. Conditionally it began to be called Bios (that is, life).
Over time, however, it was specified that this Bios has complex structure into which the set of various connections enters, and some of them were already known to scientists, and one, that which so actively influenced yeast was for them something new. This biologically active component was also biotin (then it was so not called still).
So, initial Bios under the influence of certain medicines broke up to several fractions, one of them dropped out in a deposit, another remained in solution. The first received the name bios1 (after it in pure form allocated from tea), the second — bios2, in the future — vitamin H.
After a while, in 1916 the scientist by the name of Batiemang, making laboratory trials on rats, found out that from crude egg white the animals have serious problems with muscular activity, wool drops out, skin is surprised. At the same time from a boiled yolk of similar symptoms did not arise.
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From an egg yolk in 1935-1936 the Dutch scientists Fritz Kegl and Paul Gyeri emitted pure B7 vitamin (for receiving only 100 mg of crystal substance they, however, needed a quarter of ton of dry egg powder). Biotin is also obliged to this scientists by the name. Similar substance was emitted from a liver later.
The substance emitted from an egg yolk was tested on rats. Experiments confirmed that it protects animals from the symptoms described by Batiemang.
Several more years later Sternbakh and Goldberg managed to develop a method of synthetic production of the pure biotin received as a result of difficult chemical reactions from fumaric acid. The name vitamin H to this substance was given by the scientist P. Saint-Dyerdi, from the first letter of the German word haut (skin).
The subsequent researches confirmed that biotin the Pin and vitamin H on the structure and functions are completely identical. And still till 90th years of last century the answer to a question for what the organism needs this biologically active element, was not completely opened.
In general, thus, one may say, that the glory of the opener of vitamin H cannot be attributed to any specific person. Let's tell more, this substance long time was not considered vitamin as unlike other biologically active components, its deficiency in an organism does not cause obvious serious conditions.
Characteristic and properties
Biotin is a crystal colourless substance which is well dissolved in water (all vitamins of group B have such property), alcohol and some other solvents (benzene, acetone and others), however is practically not dissolved in air and chloroform. It is interesting that neither x-ray, nor ultraviolet rays, nor high temperatures, nor molecular oxygen, nor even sulfuric acid destroy vitamin H, and here substance is unstable to peroxide of hydrogen, sulphurous gas, formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid.
Vitamin H as coenzyme is a part of various enzymes, plays an important role in carbohydrate exchange, production of collagen and transport of carbon dioxide of blood. Having got to an organism with food, this substance is released, then soaked up in blood through walls of intestines and collects in kidneys, adrenal glands and a liver. In blood the maintenance of this coenzyme remains almost invariable.
Important! Unlike many other vitamins and minerals, the biotin which is contained in products does not decay at their heat treatment and is not oxidized in the open air.
Than vitamin is useful: main functions and advantage
If to characterize vitamin H role in our organism in a word, one may say, that it is the catalyst. And one of the most active. In particular, with direct participation of this substance there are following processes:
- glucose exchange, production of insulin in blood;
- carbohydrate and amino-acid exchange;
- formation of fatty acids and their subsequent splitting;
- removal from an organism of vitamins of group B;
- skin regeneration, growth of hair, nails (biotin contains sulfur, and she, in turn, participates in production of collagen, a basis of connecting fabrics);
- completion of content of zinc in an organism;
- functioning of nervous system, sweat and male gonads, bone and brain;
- improvement of functions of a liver;
- the balance of some hormones is maintained.
Also vitamin H strengthens effect of other vitamins of group B, in particular, of B5, B9 and B12.
Important! Biotin is a substance which main task is to release energy from the food consumed by us and to supply with it nervous cages. This vitamin does not make any impact on our mentality, its zone of responsibility — only physical processes proceeding in our organism.
The functions of a coenzyme of R stated above with evidence show that this substance is equally necessary both for adults, and children.
At children with congenital deficiency of biotin literally in several months after the birth serious problems with skin, hair begin, and in some cases there can even come the death of the baby. For this reason it is so important to pay in due time attention to signs of a lack of vitamin H at the child.
Usually kids receive necessary amount of biotin with maternal milk or as a part of quality dairy mixes therefore objectively avitaminosis arises rather seldom.
Vitamin H participates in exchange processes, provides formation of soft fabrics and a muscular system, promotes the normal course of power processes. It is very important that all these functions in the child's organism correctly worked since the birth, otherwise the child begins to lag behind in development. Besides, children rather often have various diseases of dermatichesky character in which prevention the important role belongs to the same B7 vitamin.
Rejuvenating is added to the problems of vitamin H stated above in an organism of adults. It is not so important for children, but with age begins to look at quality of skin, nails and hair of people in a different way: skin becomes to the land, there are folds and wrinkles, nails exfoliate and break, hair drop out. Biotin represents natural prevention of these unpleasant processes, for this reason it is often added to various cosmetics.
Whether you know? Now active researches of use of biotin in fight against cancer are conducted. The idea is in that by means of a coenzyme of R to deliver special enzymes which have to stimulate an immunological attack on it from within in a tumor, blocking its growth and killing cancer cells.
One more useful property of vitamin H — regulation of processes of sweating.
Unfortunately, there is a problem. Improper feeding, alcohol, reception of antibiotics and other medicines — all this very quickly breaks intestinal microflora, and as the result, leads to sharp decrease in level of vitamin H. For this reason the addictions mentioned above very brightly affect appearance of the person, especially it becomes noticeable with age: such people have bad skin and hair, look is more senior than the years, at them unpleasantly smells from a mouth. To avoid such problems, it is necessary to protect health from the youth and to include in the diet more than those products what contain biotin.
What products contain substance
Fortunately, this substance is rather spread in the nature, it is present both at vegetable, and in animal food, however it is more of it nevertheless in the last. But in vegetables and fruit vitamin H is in a free state while in animal food it is connected with protein.
Important! The problem is that biotin, received from foodstuff, is not absolutely the fact that it is necessary for us. We receive this substance in two ways — through food and by own synthesis. Healthy intestinal microflora is very important for the last direction, and here it is already provided, including, healthy nutrition.
It is possible to find a set of various tables with the list of food which contain biotin, and the indication of its exact quantity on 100 g in Network. Let's provide only some data (for vegetarians and meat eaters).
Champions on vitamin H content among plants are:
- beans and soy;
- crude rice and rice bran, rye (whole grains);
- cauliflower and champignons;
- white cabbage;
- corn and green peas;
- peanut, almonds, walnuts;
The maximum quantity of biotin is in the products specified in the first three lines of the list, further its quantity sharply is reduced.
If to speak about what meat products contain vitamin H, then it first of all:
- offal (liver, kidneys, heart) — beef, pork, veal;
- chicken yolk;
- fowl and beef;
- cow's milk (integral);
- beer yeast.
Daily requirement and norm
Biotin the human body needs a little, only several microgram a day. Average values, depending on age, look so:
- newborns and children up to eight months — 5 mkg;
- children from eight months to one year — 6 mkg;
- children of a year to three — 8 mkg;
- children from three to eight years — 12 mkg;
- children and teenagers from eight to thirteen years — 20 mkg;
- from thirteen to twenty years — 25 mkg;
- after 21 year — 30 mkg.
It is interesting that it is necessary for women of vitamin H more, than a strong half of mankind. It is connected with unequal amount of glucose in a female and male body. Because of a lack of this substance of the lady are depressed more often and become irritable.
The specified indicators are very conditional, so, for example, the daily dose of biotin for the specific child is defined by the pediatrician, and sometimes it on the first year of life can already make 10-15 mkg. During pregnancy and feeding by a breast the daily norm of this substance sometimes increases up to 30-100 mkg.
The person needs to use daily more coenzyme of R if it:
- plays sports or experiences heavy physical activities;
- lives in conditions of a frigid climate;
- works at harmful productions (especially at contacts with mercury, arsenic, carbon connections);
- has diabetes;
- had a burn;
- had an infectious disease;
- suffers from nervous tension.
Shortcoming and surplus of vitamin H
The deficiency of vitamin H meets not really often, and its overdose — and that is more rare. Nevertheless one of these states has very unpleasant symptoms.
The shortage of vitamin H first of all is reflected in a condition of skin and a hair. Skin begins to be shelled, becomes dry, there can be seboreyny dermatitis, hair drop out, their growth slows down.
Whether you know? Avitaminosis of biotin was recorded at athletes who for increase in muscle bulk used crude eggs in large numbers. As it was noticed last century during experiments on laboratory mice, crude protein neutralizes B7 vitamin. At the same time, if to cook egg, protein is displaced, and nothing similar occurs.
Also can lead various unbalanced diets and also the intestinal microflora violation interfering synthesis of this substance to such states.
Besides skin frustration, the deficiency of biotin is reflected also in the general condition of the person. It has such symptoms as:
- slackness, apathy, drowsiness;
- loss of appetite;
- nausea, vomiting;
- muscle pains;
- increase in level of sugar and cholesterol in blood;
- reduction of level of erythrocytes in blood;
- decrease in sensitivity of skin;
- inflammation of mucous membranes and language.
The deficiency of biotin is easily diagnosed by carrying out the clinical analysis in urine: in it the lowered level of this substance is fixed.
Usually at insignificant avitaminosis the problem is easily fixed by correction of a diet.
Very many biologically active agents at overdose can cause to our organism nearly bigger damage, than that with which their shortage threatens.
Fortunately, B7 vitamin does not concern those.
Scientists conducted repeated researches, and both on laboratory animals, and on volunteers, and the total absence of any side effects even was established at introduction of biotin in the volumes, in one thousand times exceeding a daily dose. An animal at all as an experiment once entered intravenously substance at the rate of 1 g on 1 kg of weight, and no symptoms of poisoning arose: the intestines vermicular movement, breath, motive functions, work of a liver and kidneys, metabolism, pressure — everything remained normal.
Interaction with other substances
Some substances capable to block synthesis of biotin or its absorption in blood, we already mentioned. It is crude chicken protein, antibacterial medicines, alcohol, greasy and sweet food. Has the same properties the medicines containing sulfur and also medicines of anticonvulsant action (by the way, spasms very often are followed by deficiency of magnesium, namely this state very often, in turn, provokes a lack of B7 vitamin).
On the other hand, vitamin H is necessary for normal functioning in an organism of vitamins of group B and also vitamin C.
Pharmaceutical forms of vitamin of biotin
The shortage of vitamin H can be filled not only at the expense of products, but also by reception medical the medicines supporting him. It is on sale in drugstores in various forms:
- tablets of a different dosage;
- ampoules (for injections or rubbing in in skin);
- as a part of complex vitamin medicines.
Possible harm and side effects
Vitamin H is not toxic and it is almost impossible to get poisoned with it irrespective of, it got to our organism through a mouth or some other way. An allergy to R coenzyme — also the phenomenon exclusively rare (though sometimes meets).
As any soluble substance in water, biotin is easily removed from an organism with stool and urine. For this reason even in large numbers this substance is not capable to do big harm. In some cases at a gipervitaminoza of biotin there can be such symptoms as:
- the increased perspiration;
- frequent desires to urination;
- allergic reaction in the form of reddening on skin or in other form;
- abnormally quickly growing nails and hair.
Usually such symptoms pass without the additional help. And still from this does not follow that the drugs of biotin can be taken uncontrolledly, without doctor's advice and in unlimited number.
Small but precious. This saying as is impossible approaches vitamin H more. For happiness we need it very little, but if not to provide this small dose, problems can arise very serious. Eat properly, watch over the health and do not allow deficiency of useful substances in the organism!