The wrong eating habits, undoubtedly, are one of the possible reasons for developing of diseases. Modern researches of nutritional value of products are directed to establishment of communication between developing of separate diseases and a diet of the person. Significant impact on nutrition value of products represents type of the fatty acids which are contained in it.
Value and role of fatty acids in an organism
Nonsaturated fatty acids divide into monounsaturated (MUFA) which are presented by oleic acid (omega-9). They help to lose extra kilos struggling with abdominal obesity.
The second EFA group — the polyunsaturated fatty acids (WNKT) called PUFA acids which representatives are the omega-3 and an omega-6 of acid. Among nonsaturated acids polyunsaturated acids play an important role in food of the person.
Whether you know? Nutritionists claim: the deficiency of fatty acids in an organism for the person is more senior than 20 years it is possible to fill up, having eaten 100 g of potato chips or 10 g of sausage of crude smoking.
Primary acid the omega-3 is ALA (alpha and linolenic) — the predecessor of DHA (dokozahexayenovy) and EPA (eykozapentayenovy). In turn, primary omega-6 acid represents the predecessor of LA (linoleic) — arachidonic acid. With their help fabric hormones normally function, DHA is a component of cells of a brain, retina and sperm and controls that all this functioned properly. Besides, DHA additive in a diet of pregnant women provides the correct development of the central nervous system at in utero the developing fruit.
Learn also what properties have such nutritional supplements as: creatine, protein bars, pink salt, soy protein.
Besides, an omega-3 regulate cardiovascular function, fibrillation (thus preventing formation of clots of blood), levels of arterial blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol (perhaps, increasing synthesis of bilious acids from cholesterol and promoting its allocation to bile), and, therefore, counteract heart attacks, atherosclerosis and a stroke. They also prevent cancer as inhibit growth of tumors, proliferation of tumoral fabric. Nonsaturated fatty acids:
- Regulate a digestive tract and strengthen the immune system. Thereby stimulate it to strengthening of fight against pathogenic microorganisms. Besides, nonsaturated sekretirutsya by sebaceous glands that provokes formation of acidic environment on skin. Thus bacteria which try to get through skin into an organism are destroyed.
- Protect from arthritis, kill the pain and rigidity connected with rheumatic diseases. They also facilitate calcium absorption therefore they are irreplaceable at prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
- Their deficiency increases susceptibility of an organism to an infection, worsens function of many key bodies — kidneys, a liver, hearts — the deficiency of blood platelets causes and also increases risk of development of a hypertension. It can also promote infertility.
- Their shortcoming is shown in insomnia, a depression, violation of thinking, fragility of hair and nails and also deterioration in a condition of skin (it becomes thin, shelled, decoloured).
Whether you know? An easy way for definition of that what fats of a look are present at products habitual to us: olive oil remains liquid at the room temperature, means in it there are monounsaturated fatty acids.
Types of fatty acids
We eat different fats, but often we do not know what they have nutrition value and what impact is had on our health. Fats meet in all groups of living organisms, they are spare power material and a component of cellular membranes. Several years ago they were considered unnecessary and a harmful element of a diet, today nutritionists came to division to undesirable (animal) and desirable (vegetable and fish food). Lipids represent big group of connections with various chemical structures with the general elements: each fat molecule consists of glycerin with which the same acids unite. From what fatty acids are present at a fat molecule, also its properties depend. They are divided into 3 groups.
Sated — meet mainly in animal fats (fat, sausages, oil) and are used by an organism as a power source. Their surplus causes increase in cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. Therefore animal fats do not add to the person of health, and we have to avoid their surplus in a diet.
It will be interesting to learn - how to define trans-fats, than cod-liver, badger and bear oil and also what products burn fat is useful and how to keep results after weight loss.
Monounsaturated are fatty acids an omega-9. We will find them in olive, rape, peanut butter, avocado and cod-liver oil. They help to reduce cholesterol level in blood. The main advantage of oleic acids is an anti-atherogenous effect of olive oil. Rape oil contains the same quantity an omega-9 therefore it is called oil of northern Europe.
Polyunsaturated — are present at vegetable and fish oils. Treat them linoleic and linolenic acid (for short NNKT). Both of them are very important for our organism as both of them lead to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which have many important functions. NNKT are construction blocks for creation of biological membranes of each cage of our organism and regulation of various physiological processes.
Important! It is necessary to remember that (standard daily rate) we have to see a half of the useful fats necessary for a human body visually. In a cup of the drunk milk or in the salad flavored with sour cream sauce. An invisible part of standard daily rate of the necessary acids is present at meat, dairy products, at rolls and bread.
Where to look for products sources
Edible fats have plant or animal origin.
Vegetable — receive from seeds or fruits of oily plants, animal fats and from fabrics or milk of land animals and from marine animals of fabrics. Sources of animal fat (except edible oils, fat, bacon, etc.) are meat and sausages, fish, eggs and dairy products. Depending on a look and age of an animal and weight of ink fat content in meat can vary from 3 to 55% of the total weight. Fats in products:
- fish contains from 0.1 do13%;
- whole milk about 3-3.5%;
- cottage cheese from 1 to 9%;
- abomasal cheese ot17 up to 30%;
- cheese about 30%;
- eggs about 11%.
The main source of vegetable fat are grain and margarine products and to a lesser extent vegetables. Many linoleinovy acids contain edible oils (corn, sunflower, soy and oil channels). And linolenic contains mainly in chloroplastny membranes of plants and in smaller quantities in seeds and oils. It is recommended to use products, vitamin-rich A, D, E and K (i.e. fat-soluble) in combination with fats. They are easier absorbed by an organism.
Whether you know? The deep wrinkles which only appeared are smoothed after use of cosmetics on a basis an omega acids. They are responsible for water balance of the top layer of an integument and lack of inflammations in the form of rash and eels.
Monounsaturated — contain in olives, rape oil, nuts (pistachios, a filbert, almonds, peanut) and avocado. Alpha and linolenic (ALA) — walnuts, oil channels, soy and linen and oils from these products. An omega-6 — in sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, walnuts, germs of wheat, soybeans, corn. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are useful only if they are produced at low temperatures — preferably on cold. Their heat treatments, for example heating, leads to the fact that they become extremely unhealthy.
Source the omega-3 is a salmon, a mackerel, a herring, a trout (they are especially rich an omega-3 of EPA, eykozapentayenovy and dokozahexayenovy). Fish and seafood — they contain the healthiest fats, they contain not only saturated acids, but to an organism are necessary as well an omega-3. The fish who is grown up not in fisheries (in warm waters), and caught in cool waters is most useful. The smallest — a herring, a mackerel, a sardine, a sprat, but also it is worth eating also a cod, a halibut, Crustacea.
Eggs — food very healthy in every respect. Unfortunately, industrial eggs from the hens raised on corn it is much worse, than eggs from domestic omnivorous hens. Dairy products — good food though some people on such products have an allergy. But most of people can eat butter and cream and if you well transfer casein and lactose, you can also enjoy great cheese. Animal fats — fat, the clarified oil, duck fat or coconut or olive oil. Vegetable oils and nuts do not need to be subjected to heating or roasting. Baking of seeds (for example, linen flour in bakery products) does not do harm to the fats which are contained in them.
Important! You watch that at your diet there were only healthy fats. Fish canned food is very good, but in the majority of canning products the fish is prepared in vegetable fat, usually in sunflower oil. Buy fish with the smallest amount of the added fats (for example, a tuna in own sauce, a smoked mackerel, a herring) or with healthy fats, such as sardines in olive oil.
About daily requirement and norms
According to the international standards, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids daily have to provide 2-8% of calories necessary to an organism. An omega-3 it is necessary to accept in the following quantities: ALA — 2 g/day; DHA and EPA — 200 mg/days; vitamin E (0.4 mg on 1 g of WNKT); The Omega-6 concerning omega-3-5-4: 1 (that means 4-5 spoons an omega-6 to balance 1 tablespoon of fats an omega-3).
Important! According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the omega-6 and an omega-3 of fatty acids makes the best ratio (100 g): caviar (0.01: 1), salmon oil and tuna (0.04: 1), cod liver (0.05: 1) and herring.
- For a diet with 2000 calories of a diet an omega-6 will cover a spoon of sunflower oil or a flat spoon of margarine.
- To satisfy requirement in an omega-3, you have to eat at least 2 portions a week (100-150 g) of fat fish.
- For those who do not love fish there is a tranquilizer (liver extract, for example crashes) and a capsule omega-3 (the processed fat from all fish).
- Keep in mind that the daily dose of EPA and DHA acids has to make 1 g, and for those who are subject to risk of cardiovascular diseases to 1.5 g.
- The recommended consumption an omega-9 (10-15% of energy) that is equivalent to about 2 tablespoons of butter.
Eat food with useful fats, it is very tasty, long time after a lunch of people has sense of fulness, besides it is important for functioning of our brain and our body. Even if you grow thin, do not refuse useful fats because this replenishment by organism carbohydrates, but not an increase of fat on a waist.