Compounds of cadmium, and especially its oxides, are toxic substances. The element has property to collect in an organism, gradually poisoning him. Treats immunotoxic elements.
At the same time, recent researches on rats allowed scientists to draw a conclusion that the deficiency of an element at an experimental animal slows down growth processes.
Description and characteristic
Cadmium is an element of the 12th subgroup of a periodic system. Serial number — 48 belongs to transitional metals. Color of metal — silver-white. From physical properties it is possible to mark out softness and viscosity.
Has very low temperature of melting — 321 °C. This quality of an element is used for decrease in temperature of melting of various alloys. Is in a periodic system between mercury and zinc therefore has some similar properties with these elements.
Whether you know? Cadmium is called in honor of Kadm — the hero of Ancient Greek mythology, the founder of the Ancient Greek city of Thebes and the grandson Poseidon.
There are enough 300 mg of a daily dose of substance for development of the diseases connected a lot of metal. In case the dose reaches 1–9 g, the probability of a lethal outcome is very high.
Minerals participate practically in all processes proceeding in a human body. Learn more about such minerals as bromine, rubidium, selenium, iodine, cobalt, sodium, molybdenum, nickel, tin, phosphorus, chrome and zinc.
Functions and role in an organism
The element is present at an organism practically of any living being. About 3 mg of cadmium are the share of 1 kg of body weight of the sea inhabitant. At other animals and birds of our planet this indicator — about 0.5 mg. The body of the healthy adult contains from 30 to 50 mg of cadmium.
Bodies of the main congestion of metal are kidneys and a liver. As it was already told, metal has property to collect (though it is partially removed through intestines), and for this reason most of all substance contains in an organism of elderly people.
Important! With age concentration of cadmium in an organism increases.
The full clarity of a role of this element in our organism does not exist. The most probable explanation — substance performs important functions in fermentation of proteins. Perhaps, metal is inhibitor of effect of some enzymes, connecting tiolny group in proteins. In the enzymes containing zinc, cadmium it replaces. Also thanks to the physical and chemical properties can replace calcium in bones.
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What contains cadmium: products sources
The main sources in an organism are various seafood, especially a lot of substance contains in mussels and oysters. The sorrel, cabbage, spinach and salad are also rich with metal. Quite large amount of substance contains in mushrooms. Well, it is also not necessary to forget about tobacco smoking.
Whether there is a daily requirement
For the person norm is consumption of 0.01-0.035 mg every day.
Deficiency and surplus: reasons and symptoms
The deficiency of an element develops when the level of daily receipt falls lower than 0.005 mg. In a small intestine a little more than 4% of the cadmium which got there with food are acquired. On that, metal is how well acquired, contents in an organism of the following elements influences:
That cadmium which gets to us from atmospheric air at breath is acquired much better (to a half of all weight). Substance in a liver, kidneys and intestines accumulates.
Whether you know? At the nature in tsinksoderzhashchy minerals there is always a cadmium.
The organism of men contains bigger amount of substance, than women's. The average content of substance in kidneys:
- men — 0.045 mg/g;
- women — 0.03 mg/g.
In a liver:
- men — 0.0042 mg/g;
- women — 0.0034 mg/g.
- men — 0.0004 mg/g;
- women — 0.0005 mg/g.
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Metal is removed from an organism very slowly. It is considered that the usual speed of removal is approximately, 0.01% a day of substance lump.
Female sex hormone estrogen promotes removal thanks to strengthening of the endocrine processes connected with copper.
Characteristics of cadmic exchange:
- There is no normal system of homeostatic control.
- Metal has property to collect, is removed very slowly. Approximate elimination half-life — quarter of the century.
- Mostly gathers in a liver and kidneys.
- Violation of the endocrine processes connected with exchange of zinc, copper, iron, selenium and other elements.
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The deficiency of an element probably interferes with normal growth. Researches were in the field conducted only on laboratory animals, there are no reliable data concerning the person.
Important! One cigarette increases contents in a cadmium organism by 0.0001 mg. Considering quantity of the cigarettes smoked by the average smoker it is possible to draw a conclusion that smoking really kills.
- Chronic kadmioz — a disease which develops at excessively high level of cadmium. The disease affects an urinogenital system.
- Probability of the diseases connected with violation of carbohydrate exchange and also diseases at which protein is incorrectly acquired is high. As a result glucose or protein appear in urine that can lead to necrosis of testicles.
- Diseases of bronchial tubes and lungs are possible. Because of bad absorption by intestines of iron the anemia can develop.
- Increase can lead HELL to a hypertension.
- Degenerative processes in bones and joints because cadmium replaces calcium, forcing out it from bones.
- Problems with sense of smell, diseases of a nasal cavity.
- The threat of oncological diseases connected with abuse of tobacco smoking.
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Interaction with other substances
- Actively interacts with rare-earth and bivalent metals.
- Zinc and copper promote removal of metal from an organism.
- Sulfur, selenium, copper and zinc — the substances promoting slow absorption of metal in intestines.
- Vegetable cellulose also slows down digestion of substance.
Attribute to the alchemist living in the 16th century and the doctor Paracelsus the well-known words: Everything is medicine, everything is poison, and matter only in a dose. Whether the famous Swiss was the author of these lines in fact, to us never to learn any more. But the fact that this statement as is impossible more precisely describes effect of cadmium on our organism — does not raise doubts.