today's article it will be a question of a lead role in a human body. All know that lead represents soft, rather fusible gray metal. It is widely applied in different industries. Let's learn, than still it is important and interesting to the person and as this metal participates in our vital processes.
Description and characteristic
Smelting and processing of lead are the first metallurgical process mastered by people. It is connected with the fact that this material is easily extracted from ore, it is simple in processing and is widespread in the habitat. Virulence of this substance and its connections became known far not at once therefore dangerous metal collected many centuries in a human body.
It is important to know value and a role of minerals in a human body.
Our ancestors made the majority of metal products from lead — for example, pipes for water supply, edges, bullets. Lead enamel processed potter's vessels, and lead mineral paints were widely applied in production of cosmetics. In the Roman Empire lead intoxication was very widespread phenomenon that is confirmed by researches of remains of inhabitants. And poisonings in most cases occurred in people with prosperity, the expensive products (wine, olive oil) using a water supply system and cosmetics, storing in the leaded ware.
Pb is chemical element with atomic number 82. In a chain of chemical compounds it is penultimate which has the non-radioactive (resistant) isotopes (the last is bismuth). In a simple look represents soft metal, grayish-white with a bluish outflow.
Concentration of an element is equal to 1.6 x 10-3% on weight in earth crust. Occasionally in rocky breeds it is possible to meet native metal, and sometimes it forms intermetallic connections.
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As a result of processing of lead at factories the environment is polluted, underground and land waters get poisoned. Because of the high toxicity, in medicine this element is applied seldom. The main sphere of its use in the medical purposes is protection of patients against x-ray radiation at diagnostics.
Today the USA, the European Union countries and also China remains the main producers of lead.
Whether you know? As showed the researches conducted in the USA, the number of crimes in areas with the concentration of lead, maximum over the country, exceeds indicators four times in the cities where poisoning of the environment is at the minimum level. A number of scientists connects such unusual statistics with ability of this metal to destroy hormones and chemical compounds in a brain of the person.
Functions and role in an organism
In a human body about 2 mg of lead concentrate. Its maximum quantity is observed in a liver, kidneys, a head brain and in skeletal system.
The necessary dose of chemical element makes the following impact on our organism:
- intensifies processes of growth and regeneration of fabrics;
- takes part in calcic exchange and also iron exchange;
- controls concentration of hemoglobin in blood;
- stimulates or constrains activity of a number of enzymes.
Lead is long enough removed from an organism, mainly with a stake (up to 90%) and urine.
What contains lead: products sources
Food where lead contains, turn out from the vegetable cultures which are grown up on the soil polluted by this metal.
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The microcell can also easily get together with drinking water if it contacted to lead. One milligram of this metal in one liter of water is enough that the use of liquid became very harmful. However such concentration is so insignificant that you will not feel at water of a foreign smell or taste. Only high-precision modern devices can reveal availability of heavy metal. The revealed surplus of cancerogenic substance turns such water into technical liquid.
Important! Lead connections are especially dangerous to children as they lead to violations in development. Lead gets into a children's organism by means of the polluted food (dirty vegetables and fruit). But the paints getting into a mouth are the main reason of lead poisoning at children. Also serious danger is constituted by the earth and sand on children's playgrounds, accumulator batteries, newspapers and magazines with the color press.
Compounds of lead, dangerous to the person, are also capable to collect in mushrooms. At mushrooms of metal can be present more, than at the earth on which they grow.
Daily requirement and norms
For one day the lead connections get into a human body in insignificant doses — from 5 to 15 micrograms. At the same time day need of the adult for this chemical element by different calculations is equal 10-20 micrograms.
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Deficiency and surplus: reasons and symptoms
Further we will consider the reasons and possible consequences of shortage or excess of admissible norm of lead in a human body.
Whether there is a shortage
The lack of lead connections of an organism is very unusual occurrence. Data on deficiency cases of this element in an organism are not enough, similar researches were not conducted. Therefore in modern medical practice there is no description of the symptoms connected with deficiency of this microcell.
However hypothetically the deficiency of lead is possible owing to insufficient receipt of an element with food.
Excess of lead
Absolutely differently the situation with excess in a body of norm of this metal is. The portion exceeding 1 milligram can provoke the whole list of the accompanying negative phenomena. If the amount of the substance getting to an organism for day exceeds 10 mg — intoxication leads to a lethal outcome.
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Compounds of heavy metals appear in our body by means of penetration through digestive tract or respiratory organs. Further they dissipate blood on all body. Let's consider what, except vegetable food and water, contains toxic lead. We receive some dose of this substance through city dust in air. Much more terribly than existence threw inhalation of lead dust in food.
At the people forced to be everyday in contact with lead connections on productions chronic illnesses are aggravated. Metal gradually accumulates in a bone tissue. Filtering into soft fabrics, substance leads to a disease under the name a plyumbizm. Besides, there is a blocking of activity of a number of enzymes.
Whether you know? Analyses of samples of hair of Ludwig van Beethoven allowed scientists to draw the conclusions which surprised many — medicines which to him were prescribed by doctor Andreas Wawruk (attending physician of Beethoven) could become the reason which led to the death of the great composer. Together with medicines, cancerogenic salts of lead got into an organism of the composer.
So, we will provide the list of the main symptoms of chronic poisoning with lead:
- disorder of nervous system (adynamy, apathy, overfatigue);
- memory impairment;
- pain in legs and hands;
- lead raid in a mouth (the gum and teeth become pale gray);
- destruction of tissues of teeth;
- damages of skeletal system;
- arterial hypertension;
- intestines pains;
- spasmodic konstipation;
- sharp loss of body weight;
- dissonance of porfirinovy exchange;
- the developing renal failure;
- increase in number of unripe erythrocytes in blood;
- deterioration in protective forces of an organism;
- saturnizm syndrome (chronic intoxication heavy metal);
- reduction in an organism of amount of zinc, calcium and selenium;
- overactive behavior;
- decrease in intelligence quotient;
- pathological processes in muscles of hands;
- arrest of development at children;
- organic damage of a brain.
Important! Treatment of lead poisonings can be a miscellaneous — from changes in a food allowance before medicinal intervention or long stay in a hospital. Therefore, at detection at yourself the listed above symptoms, you do not hesitate with the request for professional medical care.
Interaction with other substances
As opponents of this heavy metal serve calcium, silicon, iron, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus, selenium, vitamins A, With, E, organic matter of group B. All these elements favor to removal of toxins from an organism.
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Calcic salt of quadribasic carbonic acid can be antidote at intoxication. In the infected internals the replacement of calcium by lead ions is carried out. These ions remain in calcic salt very steadily, and in the same look then are eliminated.
Thus, despite the fact that lead connections are toxins and also dangerous pollutants of the nature — in moderate doses this metal is vital to a human body. However its receipt happens in the natural way and you should not worry about its shortage. And here excess of lead — a reason for the emergency actions.