Monolithic construction – modern, perspective technology of construction of buildings and constructions for various needs. It allows to build buildings of any number of storeys with use of specialized construction element at short notice – timberings. At the same time the building construction has almost no interface seams, differs in high strength, rigidity and reliability.
What is timbering?
Timbering – the integral element of monolithic construction. It represents the form designed at the plant which on construction site is filled with ready concrete mix. After hardening of concrete the dismantling of removable timbering is carried out. Such technology can be used as for construction of completely monolithic buildings, and combined and monolithic buildings in which structure monolithic supporters and external walls from traditional construction materials, such as brick, concrete panels and others are combined.
Types of timberings
The timbering is design in the form of box. Depending on range of application during construction, allocate the timbering intended for creation of walls, overlappings, basic elements of various configuration.
Besides, timbering, depending on: - basis of design can be frame or beam; - way of installation can be stationary, hydraulic, self-elevating, lifting and lifting and adjustable; - overall dimensions is divided into small-pieces or large-panel; - way of use is removable, that is reusable, and fixed.
Material of production of timbering
Elements of timbering make of tree, plastic, steel and aluminum. The fixed timbering is made of extruded polystyrene foam and chipboard. The cheapest timbering – wooden, but at it and is a lot of shortcomings, including high hygroscopicity, low durability and fast wear.
The wood form can be used in 30 cycles of construction.
The timbering from plastic is characterized by ideal ratio of durability and smoothness of surface. Plastic has small weight, at the same time does not change form at local mechanical influences and is absolutely inert to moisture therefore concrete in such timbering hardens qualitatively. But the plastic timbering is not suitable for monolithic multistorey housing as has insufficient durability. Generally it is used for construction of low houses.
The plastic timbering is calculated on 200 cycles of construction.
For production of steel formwork the steel sheet zinced or galvanized and covered with powder paint is used. This material for production of timbering has the best characteristics. Steel formwork very strong therefore it is often used in multistorey housing. Its only shortcoming is big weight.
The steel formwork can be applied more than 500 times.
The aluminum timbering weighs less that facilitates its transportation and mounting, but it not such strong as steel. Besides, aluminum is subject to corrosion at contact with liquid concrete therefore the timbering from this material demands special anticorrosive processing.
The aluminum timbering loses geometrical correctness of lines after 300 cycles of construction.
The fixed timbering is used for construction only of one object. At the same time concrete, when hardening, contacts it indissolubly, and elements of timbering become part of structure of future building. For mounting of fixed timbering it is used multiple intermediate partitions which connect among themselves its opposite walls blocks. In cavities which form these walls install fittings and fill in concrete, at the same time the fixed timbering represents outer sides of concrete casting. When using timbering from expanded polystyrene, also heat-insulating qualities of concrete walls improve zvuko-.
Process of construction of timbering for monolithic construction.
Monolithic construction is conducted step by step. At first carry out clearing and site preparation. Then mount prefabricated reinforcement cage of future building - it is important and responsible stage as the framework forms form of future building, determines its durability and reliability. Only after that carry out installation of timbering, build special panel board designs in which fill in concrete later. Concrete for monolithic construction is prepared directly on construction site that reduces costs on its delivery to the site. When the timbering is ready, in it fill in concrete mix and maintain necessary time for its curing, on it several days leave. In winter time concrete for the best hardening is warmed up, in warm season there is no need for this procedure. After concrete hardening the timbering is removed and passed to the last stage of construction – external finishing of the house. Such construction method allows to receive smooth wall and ceiling surfaces which do not need to be leveled. Finishing comes down to performance of facing works.