Honing belongs to specific form of abrasive machining of part of the car. This mechanical operation allows to prolong the term of operation both cylinder, and the machine. And though it is seldom used in mechanical engineering, honing of cylinders in house conditions will help to avoid the address to the corresponding experts.
Experts to machine operators had to face such concept as abrasive machining more than once. Among the most popular operations of works of this type it is possible to call polishing, grinding, superfinishing and honing.
Repeated honing of cylinders should be used in some cases even without invitation of the expert, it is the simple procedure. But despite simplicity, effect of repeated processing of cylinders honing allows to increase maintainability of the car.
Honing represents mechanical operation on processing of metal material cutting. And as the cutting tool diamond grains are applied. Such operation is considered rather productive and effective in relation to openings.
At similar processing to remove allowance it is allowed with speed up to 2 million mm3 an hour. Such frequency corresponds to draft grinding by abrasive wheel or when turning to fair turning by cutter. From this it is possible to conclude that honing represents also finishing processing as during this operation receive final surface, that is part, ready to work.
The tool used when honing is called honing tool or honing head. The honing tool is the metal-cutting surface consisting at least of three, and more abrasive stones which are located on perimeter are more often.
In many honing heads the stones are removable. Then that at breakage or their wear can be replaced easily. On production the honing is made on specially equipped machines. Machines happen two types: horizontal and vertical.
Horizontal honing machines work with horizontally located spindle. Vertical machines are equipped with vertically located spindle. The first are applied to long parts and also to carrying out external operations. Vertical honing machines are used for work with short parts and mainly for internal processing, that is for openings.
Known models of honing machines: 3K833, 3G833, 3N-86, M4215-1. Among advanced it should be noted versions: LEV125 COMEC, Sunnen HTS-124-020, LEV250 COMEC, TM806 (807) and TH170.
As a rule, new modern models of honing machines are made specialized, but not universal, unlike machines of the Soviet period of production. It means that they are suitable only for some one operation, for example, for honing of cylinders.
New models of machines of the small size meet. Usually such machines are developed for honing in house conditions, with their help it is possible to process part most, without involvement of experts.
Such mechanical operation as honing, is most often used for finishing processing of openings and other round remote surfaces. But it is reasonable to do it when other methods of abrasive machining cannot be used or their application is non-optimal.
In addition, honing of openings is applied in cases when it is required to reach the minimum roughness and cylindricity of surface of part, up to accuracy in micron. Therefore this type of processing has received the greatest distribution at production of cylinders. Cylinders are widely used in various equipment, in construction and cars.
In most cases when processing parts the experts give preference to honing as it is more effective and exact. In addition, process of honing distinguishes the following advantages:
- Lack of the rejected parts. As when processing cylinders honing tool the surface of part is exposed to smaller pressure, than at other similar operations, for example when grinding, chances to receive at the exit cylinder without defects are high.
- Increase in resistance of part to wear. This advantage positively influences the subsequent engine operation that as a result allows to raise the period of its operation as much as possible.
- Achievement of specifications. Thanks to the fact that honing bars have the expanded nomenclature in comparison, for example, with abrasive wheels by means of honing all specifications imposed to part several times are more simply reached.
- Production of exact opening. Thanks to the design the honing tool during processing can automatically level opening deviations from the permissible values which have remained from the previous operations with part, for example after its drilling.
- Reduction of time allowed for processing of part. There is not only device for honing of cylinders, also such devices which allow to carry out honing of the whole block of parts at once are developed. Therefore due to simultaneous processing of several openings time allowed for operation also decreases. However it is important in bulk production when in day the masters need to make several thousands of cylinders.
For performance of honing for one operation of several cylinders at many industrial enterprises the special device for honing is used. Often they represent clamping devices which allow to fix on the machine bed the cylinder block for further processing of parts.
Thus, at first fixing of knot is carried out to adaptation on the machine properly. And already then in two stages the honing of the cylinder block is carried out:
Draft honing. At the first stage of processing the tool with coarse-grained bars is used. By means of such honing tool the expert provides initial, round shape of opening of cylinder. However it not completely complies with technical requirements to part.
Fair honing. At this stage instead of honing tool with coarse-grained bars the fine-grained abrasive undertakes. Diamond or ceramic bars are most often used. The essence of the second processing consists in elimination of all allowances and final creation of ready form of opening. After end the job got openings complies with all technical requirements imposed to part.
Honing of cylinders of parts can be carried out not only in industrial conditions on specialized machines, but also at home. Usually such operation is required when the old cylinder block of part has lost the property of resistance to wear and does not comply with technical requirements any more or it needs to be cleaned from the collected scum.
Honing in house conditions represents the same thin metal working, but not with use of the factory tool of honing tool any more, and by means of honing oil or kerosene and special honing head. The last for work with ease is fixed on ordinary electric drill.
Similar heads for the procedure can be bought in any hardware or automobile store, externally they are similar to brushes for washing of ware. As well as in option with special honing tools for machines, honing heads nozzles for drill happen also two types: for draft and final treatment. Heads differ in both admissible diameters and material among themselves.
For more comfortable honing the cylinder block in house conditions is fixed in any clamping device or on such surface which can be held strong legs. After reliable fixing of part it is possible to carry out honing. For this purpose it is necessary to pass two times opening roughing and once fair.
After honing it is necessary to clean part from shaving and abrasive. Effectively it is possible to execute cleaning warm soapsuds and soft brush. It will also allow not only to save part from shaving, but also to polish.
After that cylinders in addition process special abrasive paste to remove the remained small shaving which is difficult for noticing with the naked eye.