Hot-water heating in owner-occupied dwelling: rules, norms and options of the organization

Hot-water heating in owner-occupied dwelling: rules, norms and options of the organization

Heating of country owner-occupied dwellings can be made with use of different technologies. But most often in low-rise residential units water heating services is equipped nevertheless. Feature of communications of this type is the low cost, reliability and overall performance.

In country houses the systems of hot-water heating of both difficult, and simple design can be mounted. But anyway it is necessary to equip such communications with observance determined rules and norms.

Ways of the organization

Water heating services of the following versions is equipped in country low houses:

  • one-pipe;
  • two-pipe;

The first two types of communications are usually equipped in private residential units of the small and medium area. In big cottages in many cases collector water heating services is used.

What is represented by one-pipe system 

The main advantage of communications of this version is simplicity and low cost of assembly. The highway in heating services of this type is mounted one. Radiators are connected to it at the same time consistently on bypass.

Water in such systems spontaneously, thanks to difference of outlet pressure and entrance moves. For this reason communications of this kind are often called gravitational.

In certain cases the scheme of one-pipe heating of country house can turn on the pump of special version — circulating. Mounting of utilities with such addition is a little more expensive self-flowing. However at the same time and performance such systems differ in higher.

Two-pipe communications

The systems of hot-water heating of this type are mounted with use not of one, but two highways. Two pipes — giving and taking away at the same time are connected to each battery. Advantage of the communications collected according to such scheme in comparison with one-pipe, first of all uniform warming up of all rooms in the house is considered.

In the systems of this version the warmed water from boiler on the highway arrives to each battery. Therefore the first and last radiators when using similar schemes are warmed practically up to the identical temperature.

What is collector array of heating

Communications of this type are usually equipped in cottages, very big on the square, at several floors. Such systems with use of the special equipment — collectors are mounted. Heated water at application of such wiring layout is initially pumped actually on comb, and then is distributed on the contours of batteries connected to it.

Advantage of systems of this type, in comparison with traditional, is opportunity without effort to set the necessary temperature of heating for any room. Also use of the collector allows to create in owner-occupied dwelling several contours with different parameters of heating.

Ways of connection of radiators

The systems of hot-water heating of low houses and on way of insert of batteries can differ. Connection of radiators to highways is made by methods:

  • side;
  • diagonal;

Most often at the same time batteries crash into the highway according to the second scheme. In this case the bringing pipe joins one of the top branch pipes, and taking away — to lower from the opposite side. The diagonal method first of all is popular, thanks to the fact that at its use the performance of radiators improves.

At the lower connection of the battery have the smallest efficiency, However such way of insert allows to carry out pipes under floor that well affects exterior of the room.

Side connection of batteries assumes accession and bringing, and discharge pipe on the one hand. At such mounting the radiators in the subsequent work with bigger, than at the lower connection by performance, but from smaller, than at diagonal.

The basic rules which should be observed when mounting

Even the cheapest one-pipe system of hot-water heating — design rather difficult. Therefore utilities of such version only on in advance made project have to gather. When developing such document it is necessary, in addition:

  • to decide actually on the kind of heating services;
  • it is correct to calculate parameters necessary for installation of equipment;
  • to choose for placement of all heating appliances the most convenient locations taking into account standards of safety.

Rules of selection of the capital equipment

When calculating performance of heating services the following factors are taken into account:

  • area of the building and height of its ceilings;
  • type of the materials used for construction and finishing of the house;
  • quantity and sizes of windows and doors;
  • duration of heating season in this specific area;
  • preferences of residents in respect of air temperature indoors.

At assembly of heating services in big country houses the development of the project is usually charged to experts. It is necessary to consider in this case many various factors. Respectively and to make the correct calculations independently it will turn out hardly.

Projects of heating systems of small residential buildings or dachas often are formed also without the assistance of the engineer. The fact is that in such cases it is allowed to use the simplified system of calculation of necessary power of the equipment.

Radiators and boiler for small residential units select, proceeding from the fact that on 10 m² of the room 1 kW of their power is necessary. That is the house of 50 m² requires boiler on 5 kW. Also the total power of all radiators established in the building has to be same.

Choice of the pump

The equipment of this type in design of heating services is used very often. Choosing circulating pump, first of all it is necessary to pay attention to its such parameter as performance. Calculation in this case is made on formula of Q=N / (t2-t1) where N — the power of the heating unit, by t1 — water temperature in discharge pipe, t2 — temperature in bringing.

As it is necessary to choose pipes

Most often at assembly of water heating services in country houses metal plastic pipes are used. Material of this type differs in durability and simplicity in mounting. For assembly of contours of heating systems steel and copper pipes are considered as also quite good option.

Sometimes distributing in country houses is equipped also with polypropylene use. However pipes of version for heating services are considered nevertheless as material not as the most suitable. Because of not too large-scale of reliability in multifamily houses the application of pipes from polypropylene for arrangement of heating services, for example, at all is forbidden.

What rules are followed at installation of boilers

To mount heating units it is allowed only in rooms not less than 4 m² and height of ceilings — 2.5 m. At the same time the total amount of the home boiler house has to be at least 8 m³.

It will be necessary to trim that room in which the heating unit is placed further only with non-combustible materials. Availability of raised floor or drop ceiling in such rooms is not allowed.

Mounting actually the boiler it is made with observance of the following rules:

  • the space over the unit is always left free;
  • suspend boiler at the height not less than 800 mm over floor surface (from branch pipe sawn-off shotgun);
  • under floor boiler without fail lay fireproof metal sheet of 1х1 m in size.

Gas, diesel and solid propellant boilers, according to standards Construction Norms and Regulations, have to be complemented with flues.

Installation of other equipment: norms and rules

Radiators at assembly of autonomous water heating services are most often suspended under windows. At the same time mount them so that the distance between their bottom edge and floor was not less than 10 cm, and between top and windowsill — not less than 8 cm. Between the battery and wall when mounting, according to rules, there have to be at least 2 cm of free space.

In collector arrays of heating of comb are suspended only on load bearing walls. At the same time length of contours of radiators in such schemes has to differ not too strongly.

Circulating pumps are mounted on bypass in most cases on return pipe. At the same time at their insert in distributing of heating preliminary filters are in addition used. Bypass in such knots is usually equipped with three cranes.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team