Integral part of history of mankind is the history of development of heating because for life it is not enough to person to eat food, it is necessary also to be warmed. The nature has for this purpose provided it fire which the person has learned to extract and has placed to himself at service. Nobody can tell how many years fires were source of heating of housing of people, but time when the person has moved from cave to such rooms which could not already be warmed with fires has come.
Therefore the whole heating services about which it is possible to learn from history of ancient civilizations began to appear.
The system of hot-water heating has been invented so long ago that there is no consensus, who her founding father today. On some sources in 1777 the first water system was designed for heating of incubators by the French engineer Bonneman, on others - in hundred years before, in 1675, Englishman Evelyn has applied hot-water heating to heating of greenhouse.
From this it is possible to assume that we any more never learn name of the true inventor of hot-water heating on what we will finish digression to history.
The most important - today to make at home hot-water heating with own hands, it is not necessary to be the engineer or the inventor. The most ordinary person will be able to make its mounting though a little owning knowledge of the field of physics.
Why hot-water heating
Water - one of the most favorable heat carriers and the main heat carrier in the nature. That, without pressing in physics and concept of specific heat capacity to provide with what efficiency water transfers heat, it is necessary to remember school knowledge the Gulf Stream Current.
Heating up in the Gulf of Mexico, it bears the warm waters to coast of Iceland, Britain, Scandinavia, washes them and cools down behind the Polar circle near the Kola Peninsula. At the same time does the ports of Murmansk and Severomorsk nonfreezing.
Thus water clearly demonstrates the survivability in transfer of heat, and it has two more remarkable advantages in front of other heat carriers. It is easily available and ecologically absolutely safe. All this does hot-water heating to the most favorable.
As the water heating services works
So, we have decided on type of heating and now it is necessary to imagine in the most general terms the physical principles by which it works.
First of all, we will list the basic elements which are present at the system of hot-water heating:
- the heating device or simply the boiler where water gets temperature, necessary for heating;
- radiators which will give heat of water to rooms;
- pipes on which water will be transferred to radiators and will return back for heating to boiler;
- expansion tank or capacity of hydroaccumulation which function is in to allowing pressure to reach critical sizes in system;
- well and, at last, water, without which, as in the popular song, "both not there, and not here".
Now we will return to the principles of work of hot-water heating. Their of everything two also differ they in way of water circulation in system: either it natural, or compulsory. At natural circulation the water which is warmed up in boiler according to laws of physics rises up and overflows in radiators from where, ostyv, is returned to boiler for heating.
Such system is very simple in mounting and does not demand any special devices or materials. It is good where the house or giving the small area and one-storey. It is necessary to remember one important thing only. For bigger efficiency of water circulation in system, pipes need to be mounted with some bias – about five degrees on pipe meter.
The pump helps with the house of the big area where several floors water needs to mount heating services with compulsory circulation in which to run on pipes and radiators. Thanks to it water is quickly pumped over on all system and reaches its most remote parts, without having managed to lose heat.
Choice of heating appliance
They differ by the form working fuel which, is offered for the systems of hot-water heating in four options:
- solid fuel, it can be firewood, coal, special fuel briquettes or granules;
- diesel fuel.
It is obvious that today heating services, running on gas has the widest circulation, they more economic also are easy-to-work. But gas is brought not everywhere, and it is necessary to use alternative fuel. But this measure forced. Electric boilers are good, have small dimensions, but to heat them the house not all on pocket.
Solid fuel itself does not come to fire chamber and it is necessary to feed boiler periodically. Diesel fuel has good efficiency, it is easy to automate boilers on its basis, but it also economically concedes to gas.
Besides not everyone will want to live near the tank filled with diesel fuel.
Choice of the scheme of mounting of distributing
Here generally two options prevail: one-pipe and two-pipe. The first the simplest, economic and perfectly is suitable for heating of rather small areas. Its shortcoming is that hot water comes to radiators consistently overflowing from one to another.
Therefore at the long wiring layout it can reach the last radiators of already cooled down.
The two-pipe system due to parallel connection of heating batteries allows all of them to be filled at the same time that significantly increases overall performance of system, but also its mounting becomes more expensive and more difficult.
Today the choice of radiators for hot-water heating is rather various. It is possible to dwell upon them as it not only source of heat, but also interior part. Therefore the radiator has to carry out not only direct functional duties, but also be pleasing to the eye of the host.
What types of radiators are offered to us by the industry? Selection here very variable:
- Classical pig-iron radiators. They can seem ancient, but on heat emission and durability it is difficult to compete with them. It is possible to enter the apartment of the house built half a century back and there the pig-iron battery working from the moment of commissioning of the building for certain will meet. The type of such batteries, of course, ancient, but today the market proposes many design solutions which can decorate practically any interior.
- Tube steel radiators. Represent design from the steel seamless pipes connected by welding. Among them it is possible to see models of exclusive design too, their sizes can be as very small, and from floor to ceiling. Heat emission at them good, but they are applied seldom because of the high price.
- Panel steel radiators which are used in water heating systems today have, perhaps, the broadest application.
- Aluminum radiators are just intended only for the autonomous systems of hot-water heating. They have the small weight, nice exterior, but their lack of what for achievement of the necessary power of section of radiators should be connected independently, and it demands special skills. Therefore incorrect assembly can lead to leak in joints over time that will demand to do undesirable repair.
- Bimetallic radiators the exterior are very similar to aluminum, but their design consists of two parts. In the aluminum body the steel pipe on which water circulates is built in. It is one of the best designs of hot-water heating combining heat conductivity of aluminum and durability of steel.
There are also other options of radiators, but so far will stop on this list.
Design and mounting of system of hot-water heating
If to put hand on heart, then for those who are engaged in it for the first time it is better to have number of the skilled professional – it will be correct. At first in designing process of system the table behind the table which are a little simple for studying gets out, and still it is necessary to make at the same time only right choice.
It is necessary to calculate correctly the power of heating appliance at the rate of floor area, then to precisely draw all elements of system, to choose their arrangement and ways of connection.
Of course, it can try to be mounted without advisers, but it is necessary to remember that reorganization always is more expensive, than new construction.
For those at whom nevertheless the hand will not tremble and they will decide to do the warm house independently, further we will tell about stages of this mounting.
After the wiring layout is accurately designed, it is necessary to install the boiler first of all. It is desirable that it has been located 1-2 meters below than all system and is established on special concrete pedestal. Joints of its connections with flue without fail are carefully covered with clay.
The next stage of mounting - pipeline laying and installation of radiators. It is the best of all to suspend the last where the wall is directly under window. In this case they will create heat barrier from penetration of cold air from windows.
Pipes which connect radiators have to return to the place from where have gone – to boiler. The place for expansion tank if the option of natural circulation is chosen, needs to be looked for above all system.
If circulation compulsory, then these do not need to be engaged, capacity for hydroaccumulation, is constructive part of boiler.
To be fair it is necessary to add that water heating services is from year to year improved in the economic availability and simplicity of mounting therefore it becomes simpler to mount them independently over time.