The optical cable is the cable made of optical fiber which is used for connection of the communication equipment which is at considerable distance from each other. The main advantage of such cable is the low attenuation coefficient and the high bandwidth limited only to opportunities of the final equipment.
1. The optical cable is chosen proceeding from operating conditions, for right choice learn type and category of cable which are defined by conditions of its laying. There is set of types of the optical cable: for laying in the open ground, for laying in the sewerage, for air laying, cables for the room, cables of general purpose. Usually at the device of fiber-optic communication on one object several types of cables are applied at once: for external wiring, for wiring indoors and final cable which is defined by equipment type.
2. Choose type of the buffer (dense or free) cable. Optical fiber in cable with the free buffer is protected by basic covering. Fiber is located in rigid plastic the module which is filled with hydrophobic gel. In the module there can be one fiber or a little. Such cable does not allow numerous bends, extensions, vertical laying. It is also necessary to watch that when merging in it moisture, etc. the substances capable to interaction with filler did not get. Most of all this cable is suitable for external laying.
3. The module in optical fiber cable with the dense buffer is filled with plastic. Therefore the cable maintains both bends, and vertical laying. However it is very sensitive to temperature variation and humidity and has large diameter. Such cable is more often used when laying in rooms.
4. Pick up type of external covering of cable. The external covering of the optical cable has to, generally perform protective functions, the fire safety is basic of which. GOST P 53315-2009 "Cable products. Fire safety" defines categories of fire safety of fiber-optic cable considering such indicators as smoking, toxicity of burning, etc.
5. The external covering of cable is evaluated on its mechanical properties, density of polyethylene cover, resistance to mechanical external damages, resistance to environmental activity, aggressive substances and rodents.
6. Look at optical fiber type (single-mode or multimode) cable. The multimode optical fiber is applied at connection of the equipment located in more short distances (from 300 m to 2 km, depending on the capacity of the sending device). Single-mode fiber is applied to long distances. However sending devices are more expensive to single-mode optical fiber multimode at some low cost of the cable.