That the base of the house has faultlessly served many decades, it is necessary to know rules of its construction and the sequence of performance of work. It is important to determine depth of laying of the foundation correctly.
1. The base can be miscellaneous: tape, column, with grillage, plate, pile, and even on automobile tires (Semykin's base). But construction of any of them begins with division of land allocated under construction of the house. It is carried out by means of tape measure, hydrolevel, pegs (metal or wooden) and marking laces (it is possible to replace with thin rope or twine).
2. The most important in the course of marking – to remove the first line. It has to be carried out concerning any reference point: roads, fence, neighboring building. Further, by means of hydrolevel and the simple adaptation from pieces of rope helping to make crossing angles of marking lines direct find the necessary points of perimeter and designate them by pegs. After the main rectangle is removed, start with marking of internal, considering lines of not load bearing walls.
3. Then the second stage of laying of the foundation begins: forming of trench under concrete tape, ditch under plate or is dug out by holes for installation of columns. Before starting earthwork operations, decide on depth of trench or holes. The base can be or melkozaglublenny (40-60 cm), or its sole has to be below point of freezing of soil on 20-30 cm. The bottom of ditch or trench level by means of hydrolevel, and soil is condensed with the vibrating plate or garden skating rink.
4. If level of underground water in this area high, start mounting of drainage system: to laying of the perforated pipes dewatering from foundation of future house in accumulative well. It is often arranged outside the site. Further, begin process of dumping of sand-gravel "pillow". Sand layer thickness usually is 5-15 cm, gravel – 10-20 cm. Sand is leveled surely by means of hydrolevel, spilled water from hose and stamped. With gravel arrive also, but it does not need to be moistened with water.
5. The next stage – mounting of timbering. It is made of strong sawn timber, or the removable plastic (metal) timbering is rented. Boards are mounted directly in trench or ditch. Inside of timbering covers with dense polyethylene. It will allow sawn timber to keep exterior and will prevent outflow of concrete. Then start the device of the reinforcing belt. For this purpose bars of smooth armature with a section of 8-10 mm and ribbed with a diameter of 10-14 mm will be necessary. Further, underpouring is made.