How to make ladder on the second floor with own hands

How to make ladder on the second floor with own hands

To make ladder on the second floor with own hands quite really. For this purpose it is necessary to choose suitable basis of design, to stock up with building materials, tools and patience.

The ladder on the second floor can be as unpretentious and imperceptible somewhere at the dacha, and the magnificent work of art which is the center of interior of the big house. Both that and other design it is possible to make with own hands.

Types of ladders

Functionally the ladder is the constructive supporter connecting vertical levels of the building. The ladder is intended for convenient and safe movement of people between floors. Structurally it represents joisting, supported in the different planes. At operation the elements of ladder experience high dynamic and shock strain.

There is a lot of types of ladders, but the main types, likely, only two: mid-flight and screw. Mid-flight ladder — the simplest and widespread type of construction. She can be made independently — both in residential building, and at the dacha. Mid-flight ladders happen the opened and closed types. In the second case between steps the vertical stair riser or continuous covering from below of march fastens.

The mid-flight ladder consists of marches and platforms. The stair flight is carried out from two parallel inclined beams united by steps. Stair landing is carried out from horizontal supporting girders and is intended for support of split-level marches.

If floor height and width of stair enclosure allow, the P-shaped ladder — 2 marches and one site is arranged. In the constrained conditions the ladder is done with one-shaped march and also semi-march or wheeling steps. Sometimes the mid-flight beam is established one — on the center of ladder. In that case the main load is placed on steps — for their durability additional fastenings are arranged.

The spiral staircase is carried out from the bearing support — column — on which up spiral steps of trapezoid form become stronger. The rigidity of design, besides rack, provides material of steps and protection. By the way, in mid-flight ladders the protection is not element of power framework. Screw designs are arranged at impossibility to make march and site. Exterior of such ladders effective — it becomes frequent design the center of interior of the big room.

The main lack of spiral staircases — the big steepness creating discomfort at rise and, especially, descent. It is also inconvenient to lift dimensional things on such ladder. 

To make spiral staircase, it is necessary to have certain knowledge and experience. It is better for the beginning master not to risk and order ready ladder or to charge production of design to experts.

Basic elements of mid-flight ladder

The ladder in residential building does not experience such heavy loads, as in public building. It is unlikely at the same time on it more than three people will move. Therefore in private housing the ladder can be executed easier and simple. For a start it is necessary to know its main design features.

Basic elements of ladder are:

  • At small loading of ladder with the base local strengthening can serve in design of half of the first floor. The concrete pad on width of stair is arranged when filling floor.
  • Mid-flight inclined beam. Other names: stringer, bowstring. Is the main  supporter of ladder. The lower end is established on the base in floor, top — leans on beam of site or overlapping over the first floor.
  • Ladder step or gait. The basic horizontal element of framework uniting 2 stringers.
  • Stair riser. The vertical part of step fastening overlying steps. It is carried out at the closed type of ladders. Increases rigidity of all design.
  • It is carried out from two horizontal supporting girders. The covering of site is made of the same material as steps. In option of ladders from reinforced concrete as site serves the monolithic plate with embedded parts for welding of stringers.
  • In option of P-shaped ladder the site is sometimes carried out on the racks established in half of the first floor. It becomes in case of massiveness and the extent of ladder for removal of loading from room walls. Racks are characteristic of massive metal ladder.
  • Ladder protection. Obligatory constructive part. Usually the protection is carried out from racks or rail-posts — carved racks — united by the top hand-rail. The protection can be the most various, but, in family with small children, it is necessary to carry out it is thought especially over.

Having got acquainted with design of ladders, it is necessary to study also requirements for safety.  

Mandatory requirements at the device of ladders

At the ladder device the main thing — convenience and safety of movement of people. Especially if children and elderly people live in the house. There are basic rules taken from the main document at design of housing — Construction Norms and Regulations (building regulations):

  • The quantity of steps in march should not exceed 16. Optimum — 9–11 steps. Without intermediate site, it is heavy to overcome large number of steps at rise.
  • The step of steps on height should not exceed 200 mm. Optimum height — 150 mm. Such norms are answered by all ladders in multi-storey buildings.
  • The depth of tread should not be less than 200 mm. Optimum — 300 mm. At smaller depth of tread on descent the heel will slide off that is fraught with falling.
  • The flight of stairs has to have protection. Sometimes for convenience the wall protection is arranged.
  • Optimum angle of inclination of ladder — 45 degrees. 

After studying requirements imposed to design it is possible to choose materials for ladder. 

Material for ladder

Ladders make of reinforced concrete, metal and tree. Reinforced concrete ladders establish in buildings of the increased number of storeys and high-class responsibility therefore we will not consider them in material. Ladders from tree or metal are suitable for cottage or the country house more.

In the first case the design is tselnoderevyanny — all elements are made of one material. Material for construction — pine wood, usually pine. The tree has to be dry, without chips and waviness. If not to paint ladder, special attention is paid to exterior of boards. Wood of strong breeds — oak, ash-tree, beech — in view of its high cost, complexity of processing and fastening can use only after acquisition of certain experience.

At the small sizes and width of stair the board of 150x50 mm will be suitable for all elements. For rack it is possible to use board of 100x50 mm. It is better for step to order in specialized shop — the board 300x50 seldom will be on base.

In the second case racks, stringers and beams of metal framework, and steps and covering most often cook are carried out from tree. Most often such combined ladders do the closed type. The metal framework is more preferable at the big sizes of ladder and high inserted floor. For selection of rolling it is necessary to execute calculation in the special program. Charge it better to the expert.

The device of mid-flight ladder from tree

Let's consider in detail step-by-step performance of mid-flight ladder. Let's assume that the stair enclosure allows suit two-mid-flight ladder with intermediate site. The bases are already executed. March width in 900 mm is the optimum size.

  • We carry out the drawing of ladder in two projections: in the plan and section. The scale of the drawing is better to do 1:10. If with geometry there are problems, let the scheme will be made by the expert.
  • We mark exact positions on wall and floor marker. Chalk is not necessary — it will quickly be erased.
  • We establish racks and beams of site. The framework represents such big stool. If the subladder space is used as the storeroom, the task becomes simpler. It is better to carry out all fastenings for ladder assembly corners on self-tapping screws. Racks strictly fasten on mortgage collars to floor.
  • Installation of stringers. It is the most exact and, by the way, problem part of work — to cut the correct sizes. The stringer has irregular shape for joints to floor and beam of site. Council: to make stringer template of plywood or thin board for which it is not a pity. If stair flights are equal each other, and the angles of their installation identical, the template will help to avoid mistakes in cutting of front boards. Not so there is a lot of them. Stringers to fix to beam from internal part corners with the strengthened shelf self-tapping screws with hexagon head — not less than 4 connection points have to turn out. Under the lower basic part it is possible to establish additional racks. The framework is ready.
  • Installation of steps. We carry out repeated breakdown of the sizes and adjustment of horizontals. We consider the simplest option of installation of steps on metal corners. Corners of 50x50 mm with the strengthened shelf to fix from inside face of stringers — on two corners on one party of step, fastening of everyone in 4 points. Laying of step on shelves of corners, fixing from below. It is better to take self-tapping screws zinced, in tone of corner.
  • Site covering flooring from boards 150x50, fastening by their self-tapping screws. The ladder is ready.
  • Installation of protection. We break the top leg of ladder into equal sites under protection racks. Racks and hand-rail it is possible to fix to the stringer wood-grouses with hexagon head, with big washers. Visible elements of fixture — fashionable design reception. Installation of rail-posts and hand-rail of the closed type, without having experience, it is better to provide to experts
  • To close space under site light sheet material, having arranged door — the great storeroom will turn out.

Finishing of visible elements of ladder is carried out according to taste and the general design of the room. Most often give preference to covering colourless lacquer to emphasize beauty of texture of wood.

The device of mid-flight ladder from metal

At the device of this framework certain skills of work with welding and availability of the necessary equipment are meant. The framework is made of metal according to the same scheme, as well as wooden, but it is necessary to resort to the help of experts as designs will be massivny. Most often the framework is completely sheathed by light material under wood. All metal surfaces after the termination of welding need to be covered with primer. Otherwise through some time it is necessary to fight against rust on finishing.

Hints and councils

Work with tree demands big ability and skills, than during the work with metal. Welding seams and flaws on metal framework can be polished and painted over. With tree it will not pass. Responsibility degree is higher here.

It is required to apply the level and tape measure constantly. It is that case when it is better to measure seven times, and then once to fix.

Visible elements of ladder need to be ground carefully before installation. It is not necessary to do it after mounting. Under site boards before fixing lay elastomer gasket that they did not creak when walking.

When fastening boards self-tapping screws wood-grouses we do not forget to drill opening, diameter smaller, than the self-tapping screw — at inhaling without opening hexagon head can break.

During welding you should not forget about the general safety instructions.

The ladder in the house even if the simplest, but executed by the hands, is subject of pride of the owner and, perhaps, can rouse to more difficult and design model.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team