Even the beginning gardeners know that landing of currant shanks – one of the easiest ways of its reproduction. It perfectly is suitable for all species of this bush, including various hybrids: black, red, white and golden currant and also jostaberry or kroma. However at all simplicity of this process, in each case there are nuances.
When to plant currant
The first question which rises before gardeners it is question of terms of landing of currant: in the spring or in the fall? This issue depending on type of the used shanks is resolved.
It is known that at red and white currant so-called green shanks, i.e. not the completely lignified radical escapes of the current year and also the escapes of the second level which have finished growth phase best of all take roots. Using green shanks of red currant, you will be able to receive completely created affiliated plants the next year. Reproduction by green shanks is applied depending on grade of berry and the region of growth during the period from June to August. Pay attention that too early the cut-off shanks when landing will decay rather, than will take roots therefore it is the best of all to watch readiness of escapes for cherenkovaniye individually for each uterine bush of currant. However, this method both is suitable for blackcurrant, and for jostaberry.
This way is especially good when uterine material is available in limited quantity, it is necessary to multiply quickly rare grade of bush and also at industrial cultivation of the berry-picker. But for such reproduction of bushes you will need extras, namely frame film hotbed with specially prepared soil – matochnik and also the device for spraying. It is ideal if the hotbed is equipped with the device for spraying of water that in it it was possible to create the atmosphere of fog, without lifting film.
Preparation of shanks of currant for landing
For reproduction of currant as green shanks on uterine bush choose healthy, equal, still flexible radical escapes or branches of the first order of branching, the slightly sclerotic from below. Such branches have to be bent, without breaking. In hot and sunny weather all procedures are carried out in the morning, in rainy – the whole day. It is possible to cut off escapes secateurs, and for cutting of planting stock it is better to use sharp knife not to damage the carrying-out plant fabrics.
For forming of shanks the escape is separated into the pieces including three leaves with kidneys. The lower cut of such shanks is done slanting 0.5-1 cm lower by kidneys, the top cut is left to straight lines, kidneys are also one centimeter higher. The lower leaf is deleted, having left kidney, and two top shorten half for smaller evaporation. The topmost kidney of escape is not used therefore it is cut off in all cases. It is possible to keep shanks of 12-24 h in korneobrazovaniye stimulator solution, for example, Geteroauksina or Kornevina, submerging their lower parts on 2-3 cm, or to dunk the lower cut into powder of the same medicine. Right after it shanks of currant land in hotbed.
How to prepare substrate for shanks
Currant, both black, and red, loves slightly sour or neutral soils with the increased potassium content. Therefore if the soil on the expected place of landing is sourer than 5.1 pH, add half-liter can of ashes or glass of the ground egg shell and also tablespoon of potash fertilizer to mix. Parnik-matochnik has to be located in the pritenenny place of the site and if it is impossible, sprouts should be protected from surplus of sunlight, sprinkling film from above lime mortar or covering with gauze.
For green shanks of currant in hotbed-matochnike dig over soil on shovel bayonet, carefully loosen, mix in equal shares with humus or peat. From above put mix of coarse-grained bank sand with peat in equal shares, 3 cm thick, well water. Land shanks ranks so that their leaves did not interfere with each other, on depth of 2-3 cm, at distance of 10-15 cm from each other. For strengthening of immunity and the best adaptation of seedlings it is possible to spray them with solution of the medicine "Epin-Ekstra". Having landed all shanks, close hotbed.
How to look after currant shanks
Within the first week in hotbed it is necessary to maintain 100 percent humidity of air and substrate. For this purpose five times a day carry out the closed spraying of all volume of hotbed, whenever possible creating fog. The first backs will begin to be formed in 7-10 days, and by 4th week there will be forming of sufficient root lobe.
After 10 days of contents in "fog" the shanks need to begin to be tempered, and the excess humidity it can already damage. For this purpose the hotbed is opened on airing at first for 10-15 minutes a day. If seedlings feel well, transfer them to single watering at the roots. If the first hardening was not pleasant to rastenyitsa, it is possible to spray with their Epin again. The task for the next two weeks is in accustoming to do shanks without shelter in the afternoon.
In three weeks if hardening has taken place safely, carry out root fertilizing by nitrogen. In 4 weeks from the moment of landing the okorenenny saplings of currant transfer to growing in shkolka where they remain till next spring.
How to grow planting stock of currant
Backs of green shanks very brittle therefore it is necessary to replace them from hotbed in shkolka with the maximum care. To prepare suitable substrate in shkolka, dig out trench in the pritenenny site of garden depth on shovel bayonet, mix the garden earth with peat and bank sand in equal shares, if necessary add deoxidant. Mix has to turn out very friable and well structured. Fill up with the received mix trench to half, do not condense the soil.
Then by means of tablespoon take out okorenenny shanks from hotbed together with substrate and accurately transfer to trench, putting them vertically at distance of 20-30 cm from each other. When all shanks are transferred thus, them is very careful not to injure root lobe, fill up with the remained mix to the lower leaf. The earth mechanically should not be condensed, just properly water saplings at the roots. If substrate accumulates too strongly, dosypta how many it is necessary, the garden earth. Then mulch shkolka 3-centimeter layer of dry humus or the fulfilled mushroom substrate.
Further care for saplings of currant consists in maintenance of soil moisture and timely rejection of the died plants that, unfortunately, in such cases is inevitable. In September when shanks completely odrevesnet, feed up saplings potash fertilizer. In the spring of the next year they can be landed on the constant place.