Porches for the house can be made of different materials. But most often bring together them, of course, from bar and boards. In principle, the answer to question of how to make porch from tree with own hands, is simple. To collect such design, it is only necessary to execute some calculations and to have minimum of skills in work with timber.
It is required to you
- - boards;
- - bar;
- - bolts;
- - construction level or level;
- - drill;
- - shovel;
- - drying oil;
- - cement, crushed stone and bank sand;
- - hacksaw.
1. Make the project of future porch. At first decide on corner of its inclination and also with size of steps and the top site. Developing drawings, take into account standards Construction Norms and Regulations concerning safety of similar designs.
2. According to rules, the admissible range of tilt angle of porch is 27-47 degrees. 25-30 cm are considered the optimum width of tread, height postupenka should not exceed 20 cm. Therefore for porch it is worth taking standard boards 30 and 20 cm wide. The first will be necessary for assembly of treads, the second — stair risers. For treads use boards more thickly — on 3 cm, under stair risers material on 2-2.5 cm will approach.
3. Deciding how to make wooden porch with own hands, decide including on march width. The Construction Norms and Regulations recommend to use for assembly of similar designs of board not less than 1 m long. But it is better to make nevertheless porch a little more widely — on 1.2-1.5 m. In this case on it two persons will be able easily to disperse. Counting march height, consider that the top site has to be located at the level slightly below than bottom edge of outer door.
4. Besides treads and stair risers, bowstrings or stringers, handrail and hood enter design of porch. Inclined support of march usually do of wide board 3 cm thick. Height of handrail of porch should not be less than 90 cm. Bar thickness for racks under the top site depends on the sizes of street ladder. In most cases for this purpose the sawn timber of 100х50 mm is used. If over porch it is supposed to make hood, take bar of the corresponding length.
5. Having picked up all necessary materials and having executed all calculations, start assembly of street ladder. On question of how to make wooden porch with own hands reliable and durable, there is one simple answer. Surely arrange reliable support under bottom edge of march. For this purpose dig out ditch of 25-30 cm in depth in the earth. Fill in it sand layer of 5 cm with tamper. Establish mesh reinforcement in ditch and fill in it with the concrete mix prepared in proportion 1:4. As filler use crushed stone.
6. Establish columns under the top site and hood. Dig out under them holes of 40-70 cm in depth and fill in them sand. Cover the ends of bar with drying oil or the fulfilled lubricating oil, establish them in holes on level and fill in with concrete. Make in precisely the same way columns under handrail at the beginning of future march. Under them it is possible to use bar of smaller section.
7. Collect frame of the top site from bar. Connect constructive parts by method "in half-tree" or metal corners.
8. It is the best of all to make, of course, porch of tree on stringers. Such designs look more solid and serve longer. But if there is no time to perform difficult carpenter's work, instead of stringers it is possible to use bowstrings. For their production it is necessary just to fill on basic boards thick bars under stair risers.
9. Fix ready bowstrings by one end on rod posts of the top site. Set their lower end against concrete pad.
10. Fasten bolts stair risers and treads. Do not use self-tapping screws to this purpose. Otherwise the ladder will very quickly become loose. Stair risers for economy of material on porch it is possible not to use at all. However with them the street ladder looks more reliable and solid. Sheathe board the top site.
11. Chamfer bar with a section of 40х40 mm and fix it by one end to established at the beginning of the march by column under handrail, and the second — to rod posts of site and hood. Mount crossbars or rail-posts.
12. Of course, for solidity and convenience it is worth making porch to the house with hood. To collect beautiful and reliable canopy, at first connect the top ends of rod posts over door in pairs bars of the corresponding length. Make of board small rafters, on two - three for each slope of hood. Fix rafters below on binding bars, and above — with each other by means of metal plates. Fill furring on the turned-out small "roof" and sheathe it the same material which has been used for house roof.
13. At the final stage process all wooden elements of porch paint, varnish or oil for tree.