To convince that the base – basis of any building including baths, there is no need. Before starting construction of basis of construction, it is necessary to understand types of the bases, to understand for what specifically buildings they are used. Having gained the required knowledge, having truly chosen base option, it will turn out to prevent irreversible consequences – distortions, deformations and cracks within the walls of construction.
Though traditionally the bath belongs to the facilitated constructions, two-storeyed constructions meet. Because of it to choose the base, it is necessary to approach individually future building, being based on such criteria:
- massiveness of bath;
- material for walls and roof of the building;
- specifics of geodesy of the site.
Optimum types of the bathing bases – tape or column designs. Though sometimes it is required to make also pile option of the basis. Right choice – guarantee of lack of problems when performing tie of floor, impossibility of development of cracks on walls.
What to choose base option
Resolving choice issue like the bathing base, it is necessary to consider soil type, the amount of construction, level of groundwater occurrance, materials from which construction of bath is supposed. Footings are continuous, column, pile rostverkovymi, monolithic or screw.
Tape option of the base – the main type of basis used for constructions, not heavy and not difficult on configuration. It is monolithic or block. When the soil under the building dense, and bath small – is more preferable suit the column base. Support mount as in building corners and where walls are joined. Pile rostverkovy the option assumes performance of additional binding of the base by grillage: bar or channel. Such support reliably will begin to hold bath if the site is dangerous by quicksands. The screw base is preferable to the sites having the mobile soil or bias. The monolithic base is reliable, it is suitable for any construction and the soil. It is continuous plate from reinforced concrete, thanks to significant area capable to reduce ground pressure from construction.
What base for bath is better? Most we accept continuous footing as allows not to attract many people to its construction, saves building material.
As the used material the bathing bases are classified so:
- pile (screw or jellied).
Data on operations procedure at laying of any bathing sole will become useful:
- To clean site under the chosen base type.
- To choose basis option.
- To make marking at pile foundation or to dig out trench for continuous footing.
- To establish support according to the project and marking, to build continuous footing on technology.
- At the pile base to make the top fastening, to expose grillage on level. To the tape basis to give month on reinforced concrete strengthening.
- In pile foundation to execute socle, to organize blind area. To provide continuous footing with waterproofing, also to provide availability of blind area.
The choice of the place for laying of bath
Very responsibly it is required to choose the place for bath construction. The design is built for a long time therefore has to be located correctly. There are various options of arrangement: extension to the house, the bath standing separately. When the building is attached to the ready house, its basis is carried out by analogy with the main base, organizing binding. It is impossible to choose screw piles if the main house is built on tape type of the base. At separately located bath it is necessary to choose such place which does not adjoin trees or other landings. The bath should be heated, and sparks and smoke are harmful to fruit plantings.
Why the project is necessary?
Independent construction demands preliminary preparation – the plan of construction is necessary even if construction and will not be registered subsequently. It is the simplest to choose the standard project which are enough on the Internet. For any ready project photos which are necessary for representation that it will turn out as a result of construction are provided. Also the plan has included the estimate counting necessary material and additional expenses to start construction.
There are several ways of performance of continuous footing under bath. Previously make marking of future basis on the site, then on it it is necessary to dig trench. Its depth is carried out more half a meter, and width is provided such that the brickwork or bar were already on 5 cm. It is necessary to start digging of trench in the summer, in the period of the deepest groundwater occurrance. Stages of the subsequent works entirely depend on option of execution of the base:
- Execute pillow, using coarse-grained sand and gravel. Carefully stamp each layer, it should not be thinner, than 15 cm. It is recommended to apply ready mix though it is more expensive. That compacted sand was better, it should be spilled water. Mix the liquid solution of cement reminding sour cream then fill in with it sand pillow. After that follows on the received basis to lay out rubble stone or brick. They will become tape basis of future base. By all means lay every second layer the metal gauze. Over the ready base lay two layers of roofing material for waterproofing.
- Other option of arrangement begins with the fact that the trench to half is filled up with mix PGS which needs to be stamped. It is important to level pillow surface carefully. The next stage – laying of brick row. Then in trench mount timber formwork, applying bar of 40х40 mm to its fastening. Over the surface of soil the timbering has to act at least on 20 cm. After completion of preparatory actions in timbering accurately fill in concrete from moisture resistant cement.
- At rather dense soil it is possible to make timbering of sheet slate and bar. Stack slate with an overlap for tightness of design. In timbering fill up at first sand and stamp it. Then turn of gravel with which fill half of height of trench. Spill charge water and start underpouring. There is enough thickness of its layer in 150 mm. Fill in concrete until emergence of liquid solution on the surface of soil.
When any option of the base is filled in, it is important to execute its drying correctly. If to make it quickly and unevenly, subsequently the base will crack because of what will lead bath. For the organization of uniform drying cover the base from above with sawdust, lay burlap or film of PVC. Every day it is necessary to unwrap and water design. To repeat action three days, maintaining the base under isolation. Then it should be opened, waited for final drying-out. On it 3 more days will be required. Only then cover concrete with waterproofing as which two layers of roofing material will approach.
Performing works on construction of continuous footing, consider some recommendations:
- Concrete has to rise over soil at least on 20 cm. At the same time consider level of underground water and material of walls of bathing construction. If the bath is supposed to be built from bar, lift above socle as for tree moisture is contraindicated.
- From lime sand brick it is impossible to build the base as it from moisture collapses over time. And here the red brick is made at rather high temperatures therefore he is not afraid of humidity.
- The tape of the base has width ranging from quarter to half a meter – everything depends only on the material chosen for construction of bath.
- Though we recommend to buy ready concrete, however its independent production will cost cheaper.
This option of the base is acceptable for any soil though to thicket it is preferred when there is plavunets. Such design costs much, but it provides uniform pressure on the earth and the bath will not warp over time. Need also to mount the base or separate pillow under the oven disappears. All design is filled in with concrete, previously having mounted prefabricated reinforcement cage, or stack reinforced concrete slabs.
Carry out the device of the monolithic bathing base so:
- Dig trench of 60 cm in depth on all width of the base.
- Fill up bottom on 15 cm with sand and crushed stone.
- Lay two layers of waterproofing (roofing material), having provided lack of open sites.
- Make timbering, lay the reinforced banding, fill in all with concrete.
- Before filling think over the place of water drain from bath in advance and establish sewer pipe as after concrete hardening it will be more difficult to be executed.
Pile and screw base
It is much simpler to mount the pile and screw bathing base. The similar design becomes unique when it is going to build bath on sand or peat. Length of each pile – about 2 m, and its thickness entirely depends on what area of construction. We recommend to buy the three-meter screw piles having thickness within 5.7−13.3 cm. Screw in them manually, filling in inside concrete. Elevated part of the screwed-up piles should be connected grillage, concrete slab or bar.
The pile and screw bathing base differs in such advantages:
- it is the only thing to do, when the site for construction has slope;
- it is available to arrange the base during any period of year;
- to put up walls, it is not required to wait for full drying of concrete;
- the basis is capable to serve reliably long, never without demanding repair;
- the design does not demand warming.
In article the survey information on the recommended views of the bathing bases is provided. This knowledge it is enough to choose the correct option, to calculate design and to organize construction of suitable type of the basis of bath.