Practically any rural house cannot do without furnace. Install such heating equipment often and at dachas or even in big cottages. Of course, any, even the smallest, brick furnace — design pretty difficult. But it is possible to lay out such equipment independently after all.
Spread the hands the brick furnaces intended for heating of country houses with use of poryadovka. On such schemes it is represented by what image each number of construction has to be laid out. It is possible to find the furnace poryadovka which is the most suitable in this specific case, for example, in the Internet.
Of course, first of all the owner of country house who has decided build the wood-fired furnace should decide on its sizes and heat emission. Dimensions of such equipment first of all depend on the area of that room which is supposed to be heated. The furnace sizes usually are determined by special tables.
For example, in not angular room on 10 m² the equipment with total area of heating not less than 1.25 m² has to be installed. For the house of 30 m² this indicator will be equal already about 7-8 m².
Also it is possible to calculate the necessary sizes, that heating of indoor air to 18 C requires 21 kilocalories of heat on 1 m³, and each square meter of the brick furnace radiates about 300 kcal/h.
That is, for example, ³ to be necessary for high-quality heating of the house of 150 m at least 150*21=3150 kcal of heat. For determination of required area of heating of furnace 3150 we divide into 300 and we receive about 10.5 m². Now it is possible to calculate the necessary sizes of the equipment. For this purpose follows:
- to separate the found area of heating into the active height of the furnace (distance from grid-iron to upper surface of fire chamber);
- to separate the received perimeter into two, having defined thus ratio of width and length of the equipment.
Thus, for the furnace with active height of 2.2 m in our example of calculation will look so:
That is, if length of the furnace is equal to 550 cm, the indicator of its width should not be less than 500 cm.
Where to place
It is considered that it makes sense to install such heating equipment only in rooms not less than 16 m² with standard height of ceilings. Otherwise to the oven in the subsequent will not gasp. And it in turn can become the reason of its incorrect work. Therefore, in small owner-occupied dwelling such design should be built in the largest room.
Most often heating furnaces, of course, have at wall. At the same time it is considered that the most suitable option of placement of such equipment is the partition separating two main rooms in the house. In most cases it is the hall and the bedroom.
The cooking and cooking and heating furnace, of course, should be constructed in kitchen. At the same time it is the best of all to place it near table-top. It is necessary to build both the heating, and cooking furnace so that exit of its fire chamber has not been directed towards door. Such placement considerably will reduce the efficiency of this equipment.
In addition, when choosing the place for installation of the furnace it is necessary to pay surely attention to how floor beams in ceiling and rafters in roof slopes are located. The flue of the heating equipment, certainly, will have to pass in the subsequent between such designs.
The furnace it is better to have at the wall collected from non-combustible materials. Wood enclosing structures of the house surely should be shielded from it metal sheets.
How to choose materials
Of course, durable the brick furnace in the house or cottage will turn out only at term of use for its construction of suitable materials. Such equipment at operation can be warmed to very high temperatures. Therefore to spread from normal corpulent brick it is allowed only ashpit of the furnace and upper part of pipe.
The fire chamber of designs of this type is collected with application of refractory shamotny brick. From the same material usually spread also the lower part of flue.
The cement slurry at construction of furnaces can also be used only at assembly of ashpit and top of pipe. The fire chamber and bottom of flue are spread with use of clay mix. Cement of too high temperatures, as well as normal ceramic brick, unfortunately, does not take out.
Clay mix for laying of the furnace can be bought ready, and it is possible to make and independently. In the latter case:
- clay is retted in water at least for three days;
- wipe weight through sieve;
- add the sifted sand to clay.
For fortress in solution also a little table salt can pour.
Clay in different areas can have unequal fat content. Therefore for laying of the furnace it is important to pick up correctly proportions of its batch with sand. Do it approximately on such technology:
- divide big piece of clay into five equal parts;
- to three parts add respectively ¼, ½, ¾ sand volume, and to one — equal weight part;
- tests knead to uniformity and leave for 3-4 hours;
- skatyvat five clay sausages 1.5 cm thick;
- wind sausages around something round with a diameter of 5 cm.
Further sausages are attentively examined. For laying of the furnace such solution in which it was not formed cracks more than 2 mm in depth will be considered as suitable.
If to plaster the furnace in the subsequent it is not supposed, water for batter should be taken only rain or drinking. Otherwise in the subsequent on fire chamber walls at operation salt spots will begin to act.
Construction of the base
The furnaces intended for heating of houses, which are laid out brick, even the smallest somewhat weigh it is a lot of. Therefore build such designs only on the base. When filling the basis of the furnace, in addition, follow such rules:
- excavating depth has to be equal to house foundation depth;
- strictly the bases of the furnace and the building do not connect;
- fill in the furnace basis with use of cement of high brands.
Build the bases of the heating equipment of this type on standard technology — in timbering with reinforcing.
How to spread the furnace: basic rules
Actually at assembly of the most brick furnace it is necessary to watch closely poryadovka first of all. It will be rather difficult to shift even several rows of such design. Also at construction of the oven it is necessary to follow such rules:
- thickness of seams at laying of ashpit and upper part of flue has to be equal to about 5 mm, the furnace camera and the lower part of pipe — 3 mm;
- each brick before laying should be lowered in water for several minutes;
- share bricks at laying it is whenever possible necessary to have the hewn party in seams;
- it is necessary to stack grid-irons with gap not less than in 5 cm;
- grid-irons in the furnace stack cuts along toplivnik;
- seams at the laid-out furnace have to have identical thickness on all length.
As the clay mortar differs in smaller durability, than cement, it is necessary to spread the furnace strictly with use of level. Otherwise on walls of this design in the subsequent cracks will appear.
The first row of the furnace is spread on the base waterproofed by two layers of roofing material uninterruptedly. Further use the chosen poryadovka. Doors of fire chamber and ashpit fix with application of the annealed wire overwound twice. In the end of twist pass nail and stick it with tightness in the vertical joint located most closer.
Assembly of flue
At construction of flue of the heating furnace, of course, in addition, it is necessary to follow also rules of fire safety. Through room ceiling such designs without fail carry out through the box made of tin. At the same time the space between pipe and walls of branch pipe is also filled with insulating material.
Length of flue of the heating furnace, according to standards, has to be equal to about 5 m. Anyway you should not spread flue higher than 7 m without hoarse pipe. Otherwise in it in the subsequent a lot of condensate will be formed and consequently, and soot.
How to finish the furnace it is correct
For the first time it is possible to heat the new furnace firewood in the house or cottage not earlier than in 10 days after the termination of laying. Otherwise walls of fire chamber and flue can crack.
After the furnace is heated and slightly will cool down, it is possible to start its plastering. Solution for finishing of the furnace it is also normal to prepare from clay. It is also possible to buy for this purpose ready cement and clay mix.
Plaster furnaces usually with use of the reinforcing glass-fiber grid. To make design corners the most equal, on them with use of heat resisting glue it is worth mounting steel corners previously.