Construction of any building or construction begins with mounting of timbering – basis under the base. The technology of its creation is familiar also to experts, and those who builds or built something the hands. The instruction of mounting of timbering is not difficult and if strictly to conform to the simple rules, then it is possible to cope with task without the aid of professionals.
In spite of the fact that the timbering is simple, and often also shoddy construction, you should not treat its mounting scornfully. If the decision to make it with own hands is made, it is necessary to study in detail technology and instructions for its creation, to pick up correctly materials for its forming.
What is timbering
The timbering is auxiliary design. It forms basis during creation of the bases for residential and industrial buildings, fences, garages and other constructions. Timberings were applied in construction since ancient times. Development of technology of their mounting is inseparably linked with development of architecture, and you should not treat scornfully these designs.
Timbering – box-shaped construction, framework in which concrete is filled in. Boards of design do not allow solution to spread until it grabs". After process of hardening is completed, timbering, as a rule, sort.
For each of types of constructions and types of their bases (bases) certain type of timbering, technology of its construction is used. In construction there are two main types of similar constructions – temporary and fixed. Besides, their classification by assignment, design features, the used materials is applied.
Filling of the base without timbering, direct in the trench which is dug out in soil practices construction, but the quality and durability of such basis cannot be guaranteed.
What timberings – types and their design features are
The timbering can be collapsible and fixed. Fixed designs for filling of the base become part of the building, allow to minimize time expenditure on this stage of construction, but if to speak about cost, then they are more expensive, than collapsible design.
Collapsible timberings happen five types:
The manufacturing techniques of stationary formworks are simplest, but most often similar designs are disposable, and in it their main minus. They are applied to forming of non-standard or difficult concrete beds in the constructive plan.
Adjustable timberings reusable, most often make them of metal, it is simpler to work with them, there is no waste in the form of the used boards and boards. Such designs are applied, as a rule, by professionals, at construction of large objects.
Suspended formworks are used during creation of horizontal platforms, for example, of flights of stairs, various overlappings. The sliding and shutter trestles are difficult designs which it is possible to call and (to move) with mechanisms as they are capable to lift themselves.
Of what materials build timberings
In industrial construction timberings from metal (steel, aluminum) or expanded polystyrene are used. In low construction or during creation of the bases of small volume to create wood structures more simply and more economically. The only rule is to approach responsibly material selection. Experts recommend to give preference to larch or coniferous breeds:
Material (boards) can be both cut, and not cut, and here to technical characteristics specific demands – humidity not less than 25%, thickness – from 20 to 50 mm, optimum width – 200 mm and more are made.
Boards for mounting of timbering have to be rigid that it was not necessary to establish a lot of emphasis. Too dry material will absorb moisture from concrete solution that will negatively affect its utilization properties, that is and durability of the building.
It is possible to do collapsible designs or boards of boards. It is much more convenient to work with boards, it is simpler to remove and establish them on other place. Boards – parent material of timbering, but will be necessary for its mounting also consumables. It is necessary to include self-tapping screws and the pulling together screws in their list. At high load of design the nails can leave boards, and the base will turn out not equal and not strong. Besides, bars and polyethylene which performs functions of the hydroinsulator will be necessary.
Technology of mounting of timbering
Mounting of timbering is carried out op certain technology which cornerstone the centuries-old experience of construction is. The main stage – creation of the project of the building (object), whether it be the house, fence, street toilet or industrial building. When all necessary calculations are made, materials and consumables purchased, preparation of the place for construction of design begins – the site is carefully cleared away, if necessary the trench is dug out, the waterproofing layer is laid. On soil there should not be cracks, garbage, snow or ice. Under the place where there will be timbering, and further and the base, underground waters should not lie.
The design is exposed strictly on level. Any deviation from the line of horizontal will negatively affect quality of the basis for the building. It is necessary to trace it parameter at installation of each flight of timbering or board if it is mounted from them.
Parts of design has to adjoin densely to each other. If bay length between bars is more than 1.5 meters, it is necessary to establish additional emphasis. The rigidity of boards or boards at the same time does not matter.
Assembly of design begins with corner which has to make 90 ˚. It will allow to control diagonal, to exclude building distortion at its operation and serious shrinkage. Especially it is important for areas with high seismological activity.
Walls or form panels have to stand strictly vertically if the project does not demand availability of bias. It is necessary to check vertical accuracy construction bubble level.
The technology of mounting of timbering demands presence of, at least, two people. To expose precisely vertical, it is "per customer" difficult to check horizontal position of design even to professionals. It is very important to consider it if construction of timbering is supposed the hands.
The mounting instruction of timbering on the uneven site
At installation of timbering on sites with bias or difficult relief it is worth approaching project works more responsibly. It is important to understand that the operational load of foundation which will be flooded in timbering will be uneven. Besides, on the eminence it will be lower, than on slope.
For installation of timbering on slope surely prepare trench. Earthwork operations is recommended to be begun with the lower mark, moving up. The trench is leveled, from it the garbage is removed, and only after that start mounting of timbering.
On slopes the panel board timbering is more often used, preference is given to elements from boards, but not from plywood or polypolystyrene. Between boards on boards there should not be gaps. It is better to use cut material from coniferous breeds.
Ledge height at the bottom of trench cannot exceed marks of 30 cm. If the project or features of the area, soil demand installation of armature to the base, then its level has to be below the peak point of timbering, at least, on 40 cm. Where the concrete bed of the building will be the highest, installation of two or more rows of armature is possible.
Mounting of timbering is one of the most important stages of construction of the building of any type. It is important to understand it and to approach each of stages of its creation most responsibly, including selection of material for it. Even if the fence or country toilet is under construction, it is necessary to observe technology of mounting of timbering.