To equip owner-occupied dwelling with autonomous heating, completely equipped boiler house is necessary. As a rule, for it the certain room indoors, in extension or in separate construction is allocated. Considering the fact that any fuel is considered source of the increased danger, quite strict requirements designed to provide the maximum level of safety at operation of the boiler house are imposed to the boiler house.
Regulations and documents
The legislation establishes certain building regulations which need to be considered at construction of the boiler house. All requirements for arrangement of boiler houses in owner-occupied dwellings are stated in document Construction Norms and Regulations 42-01-2002.
At independent construction of the house from future boiler house knowledge of these standards is simply obligatory. And still they will be useful at re-equipment of already available room under the boiler house. If the project of the boiler house in owner-occupied dwelling is formed specialized firm, it, as a rule, considers all nuances and features of the specific house, characteristic of the heating equipment, tying them to the plan of the house or the project.
Standards at installation of gas boilers in owner-occupied residential buildings
Depending on the power of the gas boiler Construction Norms and Regulations allow to install it in the following places and rooms:
- at the power up to 60 kW inclusive it is authorized to install the gas boiler in kitchen;
- at the power over 60 kW and less than 150 kW the gas boiler surely has to stand in the certain room indoors, but if the boiler uses natural gas it it is possible to establish in the basement or on the first floor;
- boilers with power from 150 kW can be installed in certain rooms of the first or first floor and also in extensions or separate constructions.
It is worth paying attention that, despite everything listed, it is not forbidden to install low-power boilers in certain rooms or extensions at all. For example, to concentrate all life support systems in one place.
At the equipment of the boiler house it is important to consider also the volume of the room that carbon or carbon dioxide did not accumulate in dangerous concentration. Standards of volumes are as follows:
- at installation of boiler in kitchen its volume has to be not less than 15 m3, and room height – not less than 2.5 m;
- at installation of boiler with a power up to 30 kW in the certain room its volume has to be not less than 7.5 m3;
- when mounting boiler with a power from 30 to 60 kW the volume of the certain room has to be not less than 13.5 m3;
- boilers with power from 60 to 200 kW are put to rooms with internal volume not less than 15 m3.
The room under the boiler house has to correspond to number of requirements:
- The boiler house has to have natural lighting. And the area of glazing has to be equal to 0.03 sq.m on each cubic meter of internal volume of the boiler house.
- All windows have to be oar type and reveal outside. For airing of the room the window leaf has to be provided in each window.
- The room has to have ventilation system and flue. Exhaust pipes of boilers with a power up to 30 kW are allowed to be brought out of the room through wall.
- Any boiler house has to have the water supply and sewerage.
- Recently the requirement to equip them with gas contamination control system with automatic stop of supply of gas at leak detection was also more added to boiler houses with boilers with power from 60 kW.
Standards to boiler houses and boiler rooms in owner-occupied dwellings
Depending on kind of boiler room of the requirement to boiler houses can differ considerably.
For example, the separate boiler room with boiler with power up to 200 kW has to be fenced off from other rooms by fire-resistant wall with fire resistance limit ¾ hour. That eats brick, slag stones, lung or concrete of high specific weight. At arrangement of boiler houses with boilers in the built-in and attached rooms these rooms have to answer certain rules:
- the internal volume of the room has to be not less than 15 m3;
- room height has to be not less than 220 cm, and at the power of boiler higher than 30 kW room height has to be not less than 250 cm;
- the area of glazing of the room has to be 0.03 sq.m on each cubic meter of volume, and windows have to be supplied with window leaves or transoms for ventilation;
- the ventilation system has to provide 3-fold exchange of air in hour.
If the room of the boiler house is located on the first floor or in the basement of the building of the requirement to volume extend. 0.3 more m3 on each kilowatt of power of boiler are added to minimum to 15 m3. Requirements to the walls and overlappings adjacent to the neighboring rooms, increase too: besides fire resistance they have to be impenetrable for steam and gas.
If furnace is established in the basement or socle of owner-occupied dwelling and has boiler with power over 150 kW, it surely has to have separate exit to the street. Instead of it there can be separate exit in corridor which conducts on the street.
Requirements to boiler houses in the attached rooms
Besides above-mentioned requirements, to this view of boiler houses additional standards are shown:
- The extension from the boiler house has to stand at solid wall of the house on distance not less than 1 meter to the next doors or windows.
- Material of production of extension – fire-resistant, with fire resistance limit ¾ hour (brick, concrete, slag stones).
- All walls of the attached room should not be connected with the main walls. It means that the foundation for extension needs to be laid separately and to build full-fledged 4 walls of the attached room.
On projecting phase of owner-occupied dwelling or annex boiler house all requirements have to be fulfilled extremely accurately, it is desirable even with stock. Otherwise the project will be never approved in design department of the gas supplying organization. If the boiler house is going to be equipped in already ready building, but there is no room suitable under all standards, the gas supplying organization can soften a few requirements, having in exchange toughened others. For example, to soften requirements to room volume, but to increase the area of its glazing.
Requirements to installation of gas boiler in kitchen
Gas boilers with power up to 30 kilowatts can be installed directly in kitchen. At the same time the type of the camera of the boiler (opened or closed) can be any. Removal of combustion products has to happen in ventkanat or in flue, through wall on the street. Installation of boilers of exclusively wall or floor type is allowed.
Requirements to kitchen with gas boiler:
- room height has to be not less than 250 cm;
- the internal volume of the room has to be not less than 15 m3;
- ventilation has to provide change of indoor air not less than 3 once an hour;
- inflow of fresh air has to be sufficient for full combustion of gas.
Gas boilers of wall type have to be installed on nonflammable walls at distance not less than 10 cm from side walls of kitchen. If the building has no nonflammable walls, the boiler is installed on the slow-burning or plain combustible wall material covered without fail with 5-cm plaster coat or on fire-resistant board.
It is simple to build such fire-resistant board by own efforts. Cut out rectangle or square from sheet steel so that he supported boiler limits from all directions on 10 cm, and from above – on all 70 cm. To wall layer of thermal insulation material (asbestos, cardboard from minvata) not less than 3 mm thick fix and press it steel sheet.
Standards for separate boiler rooms
As a rule, boiler houses in separate rooms have at very high power of boilers – from 200 kW and above. Such boiler houses besides that have to meet already called requirements, are obliged to meet also some specific standards:
- walls, roof, exterior and interior finish of the boiler house it has to be made of fireproof material;
- the internal volume of the room has to be not less than 15 m3 plus 0.2 m3 on each kilowatt of power;
- height of ceilings has to be not less than 250 cm;
- the total area of glazing has to equal not less than 0.03 sq.m on each cubic meter of internal volume;
- windows have to be equipped with window leaves or transoms;
- the boiler has to be located on individual footing with height not lower than 150 mm from floor height;
- weighing boiler less than 200 kg instead of individual footing continuous concrete floor is allowed;
- the system of emergency shutdown of gas at its leak has to be installed;
- in the boiler house it is forbidden to establish the strengthened and well fixed doors;
- the ventilation unit has to update indoor air each 20 minutes (not less than 3 times an hour).
All standards have to be observed strictly. Otherwise permission from the gas supplying organization will not be signed.
Requirements to boiler house doors
First of all, doors to the boiler house have to be fire-resistant irrespective of in what room it is located. And they have to maintain fire impact not less than a quarter of hour. The only material suitable in this case is steel.
Exit from the boiler house to the street has to be equipped with poorly strengthened and not strengthened door. It is provided in case of explosion of gas at which will batter down poorly strengthened door outside and energy of explosion will leave through formed I will eat. Building walls in such option of succession of events will suffer slightly. Besides, through poorly strengthened doors well there is gas the room.
In some cases upon the demand of the gas supplying organization in the lower part of door the opening, fully enclosed is cut out by grid. It is necessary for additional access of air to the room.
Requirements to vent system
From the listed above norms and rules it is known that the performance of the plenum ventilation has to be three times higher minimum than the internal volume of the room.
That is technique of calculations is as follows: the internal volume of the room is calculated, multiplied by 3. To the received result another 30% increase. It is important! For various reasons the ventilation unit will not always be able to pump over the necessary volume of air in unit of time therefore to the received performance always add 30% "for emergency".
At installation of door it is recommended to provide the opening for air closed by grid in its lower part. Through it fresh air will well arrive, and it can protect from poisoning at gas leak.
Products of burning have to leave through ventilating duct or through flue. The flue has to leave through roof or through upper part of wall. Ventilation and smoke pipe have to be at one height.