Softener is special additive which consists of specially developed complex of chemical components.
Properties of softeners are that that after the placing in solution for preparation of concrete it is possible to improve its operation capabilities considerably. Such additives promote improvement of resistance to low temperatures, mobility and water tightness of mix, increase also other characteristics.
For what softeners are necessary
One additive can combine different functions. For example — additive which problem is improvement of frost resistance of solution also enhances its mobility and is capable to provide hydration of structure at low temperatures. Works on arrangement of designs with use of such additives can be carried out not only to warm season.
At additives of function can be such:
- Profitability. At production of concrete of cement will be spent for 15% less. To shut mix, it is required also waters less — approximately on third against normal quantity. In initial structure due to softener work concrete will quicker grab.
- Strengthening of mobility. At addition of softeners in concrete its laying becomes more convenient. It is possible to carry out works on horizontal or vertical forms with small width, having provided dense reinforcing. There is no need to carry out vibrolaying.
- Characteristics of durability. When using additives the probability of formation of time decreases, total durability increases approximately by quarter on condition of carefully picked up ratio.
- Increase in frost resistance. Reduction of tendency to formation of time reduces opportunity for moisture to get into reinforced concrete. When lowering temperatures in the thickness of concrete there will be no crystallization of water which can besides increase in sizes. Its absence helps to keep monolithic structure.
- Shrinkage decreases. Softeners for concrete are distributed on all volume rather densely. At the hydration of solution which is followed by contraction of volume on linear design data of influence it does not appear.
- It is possible to affect the speed with which solution grapples. Such need can arise if the concrete mix is transported in the mixer.
Standard types of additives
The plasticizing additives are categorized thus:
- Supersoftener — possesses all functions described above.
- The modifier — influences structure durability, helps to keep mobility of the test.
- Hardening accelerators — help to provide certain durability of solution.
- Substances for improvement of indicators of frost resistance.
- The additives helping to strengthen self-consolidation.
- Complex structure softener.
On sale it is also possible to meet hydrosofteners. They differ from normal products in the fact that at structure there are not melamine polymers, but more convenient on properties polycarboxyl.
As it is possible to make softener independently
Rather inexpensive and effective softeners can be bought in hardware stores like Lerua Merlen. If desired it is possible to undertake their production and independently. Thus it is possible to reduce a little financial costs which will be involved by construction.
To prepare good softener, such components will be required:
- Glue PVA.
- Laundry detergent.
- Slaked lime.
- Special shampoo.
- Liquid soap.
Components are selected depending on the required characteristics of concrete mix.
If when carrying out construction jobs in private possession the owner is going to prepare softeners for introduction to concrete, it is quite possible. It is required to dilute the substances chosen according to compounding carefully observing proportions. Also moment for introduction of the prepared additives to concrete structure is also carefully chosen.
Having been engaged in independent preparation of softeners, it is possible to receive considerable economy. When purchasing professional tools for production of concrete it is required to pay for liter many times more expensively, than at independent selection of separate components.
How to prepare softener for additive in concrete structure
Softeners are capable to increase time when solution allows to work with it, and help not to allow stratifyings and sedimentations of heavy particles.
Cleaning agents which can be used as additive for improvement of properties of concrete will be most effective in hot season. Their application helps to constrain moisture in the thickness of solution.
Independent preparation of structures does not cause difficulties — just it is required to fill in in the concrete mixer liquid soap at the same time when water is added. But the procedure has also minuses - it is formation of foam and emergence on surface of wall saltpetres. If proportions are observed incorrectly, there can also be problems — for example, at bigger quantity of liquid cleaning agent durability worsens, the solution prepared with mistakes will not manage to be diluted to the necessary state any more.
To reduce negative consequences from abundance of foam, the prepared concrete structure before unloading for several minutes is delayed in the concrete mixer. The washing structure added in compliance of technology is capable to make more convenient process of concrete placement and to improve its quality.
Shampoo and liquid soap should be entered into structure during zatvoreniye. The quantity has to be on one bag of cement — 200 ml. Liquid soap structure and cement — alkaline substances therefore not bad connect.
For powder the proportion makes 150 g on 50 kg of construction cement. Previously substance in a dry form mixes up with water.
As lime, PVA affect properties of solution
Lime slaked lime the cheapest softener from what can be added to cement slurry. It helps to improve elasticity of structure, enhances resistance to biological influences. By preparation of solution for plastering and laying in the course of drying the layers crack less.
Slaked lime is entered, defining the one fifth part from the mass of cement. The structure becomes more mobile and also receives bactericidal properties. But by preparation of solution for arrangement of the base and the bearing external constructions it is not recommended to use such method of preparation as characteristics of durability are reduced.
Glue PVA provides considerable improvement of adhesion. Application is recommended for the solutions intended for filling of thin tie. Glue should be added on 200 g on one bucket of the preparing structure. Durability at the same time is underestimated, but is insignificant. But several times the elasticity increases, the resistance to loads of break increases.
Two ways of mixing of mortar from concrete with softeners
For preparation of working structure various options can be used. During the work choose the most convenient for the existing conditions.
It is possible to use the following method. As softener liquid soap or shampoo is used. Introduction to working mix is carried out during zatvoreniye by water. About 50 kg (bag) are spent cleaning agent in number of one glass for amount of cement. It is necessary to add means to water, then to properly mix all mix.
One more widespread way assumes use of laundry detergent. 100-150 g of substance which is stirred in small amount of warm water are required and add to that which will be applied to zatvoreniye. Everything is poured in capacity and mixes up with cement.