Solar batteries for the dacha and the house: principle of work and calculation of necessary quantity

Solar batteries for the dacha and the house: principle of work and calculation of necessary quantity

When there is question of autonomous electrification, choose between wind turbines and solar panels. The first work always, but take a lot of place and can be dangerous. Therefore most often for the dacha and the house give preference to solar batteries: the principle of work and calculation of necessary number of panels is quite simple for independent study.

Operation principle

Sunlight is set of electromagnetic waves which extend from star in huge number. Unfortunately, photo cells which catch this radiation are insufficiently effective, and at the moment in the market batteries with the efficiency from 10 to 20% are widespread.

Any modern solar generator which was decided to be installed on country house works at the principle of P-N of transition. The panel consists of two plates of the semiconductors adjoining among themselves. When on upper part the sunlight gets, it transfers to the electrons which are contained in material, part of the energy. After that they begin travel to other layer to counterbalance charges.

To create the full-fledged panel, two semiconductors connect among themselves, applying on top thin strips of metal which facilitate passing of electrons to the accumulator, and through it there is power supply of devices. Dumping tension in stores, particles move to metal plate of the basis, and after that to the base, dark layer from where force the way to top again. The closed cycle as which driving force serves sunlight turns out.

Types of plates

There are several directions of solar panels which can be used in owner-occupied dwelling. On materials silicon plates and plastic films are the most widespread. At every way there are both advantages, and shortcomings therefore it is necessary to consider each look separately.

The plates containing flint work most effectively, in comparison with other photo cells known to mankind. At hit of sunshine on flint, the energy concluded in them displaces electrons from orbit of atoms, making direct current. Particles, moving to the store, dump charge, return to atoms where again are exposed to bombing by energy. But production of such panels quite costly both on means, and on emissions in the environment. Therefore now in laboratories there is search of more eco-friendly and effective ways of extraction of energy from light.

Characteristic of silicon panels:

  • Single-crystal batteries, have the highest efficiency which for widespread models makes 20–22%. All photo cells of which the panel consists are sent to one party that demands installation it under certain corner to sunshine. At corner shift the quantity of the developed current considerably decreases. Twilight, the shaded place and incorrectly incident light is poorly caught by cells because of what the battery does not develop energy. Therefore it is rational to install such module at large number of direct sunbeams and clear days.
  • Polycrystalline batteries. With a their efficiency within 17-18% because part of silicon plates are directed in different directions. Thanks to it the operating time increases, and it is possible to use in cloudy weather or the darkened place.
  • Amorphous panels. With an efficiency up to 10% that is caused by too thin layer of the silicon evaporated on substrate from metal or plastic. Gradually the efficiency decreases, and in 3-4 years the battery can stop work. But thanks to the accidental direction of silicon scales, all possible world is caught.
  • Hybrid panels consist of single-crystal cells together with which use also amorphous drawing. It increases capture of light beams and operating time that increases efficiency.

Polymeric solar batteries which are made by means of the press of several layers on plastic substrate are separately allocated. Because photosensitive material does not demand the rigid basis, most often such panels release flexible. Such feature gives the chance to use them on any surface. Efficiency reaches 6%, but production rather cheap because of refusal of expensive silicon and losses when transporting. But unfortunately, the technology quite new, also has smaller distribution.

Energy consumption of the house

If in the house live constantly and for a long time, then it is possible to look at amount of the consumed energy in receipts. But all the same it will be only overall picture which is not giving to opportunity to understand how consumption changes depending on day of the week and time of day. In order that it will be required to learn it in addition to calculate what part from the lump of electricity goes on maintenance of operation of devices in the background and that is used it is realized.

Procedure for determining consumption of power:

  • For a start it is necessary to bypass all house and to write down all equipment which consumes energy continuously. To it fridges, freezing chambers, boilers, heat-insulated floors, phones and other belong. After that it is necessary to be verified with the instruction to learn how many KWh consume any given devices. At this stage often there is cutting off of not used equipment that reduces expense of means.
  • When constant consumption of energy became known, begin to count variable. Small peak period falls on morning hours when all gather for work or in school. And the big peak of need for electricity comes after 17–18 hours when return from work. But all this depends on habits of each family, and it is necessary to conduct research when and as lighting equipment and also other equipment are long used. The biggest consumers are devices for cooking, TVs and desktop computers therefore it is especially important to count time of their work precisely.
  • After consumption of household appliances became known, begin to watch the frequency of use of lighting equipment. It is important to understand what during the winter period dawns later, and darkens earlier. In the Moscow region daylight hours at which on the street objects without additional lighting, are well visible only 8 hours. Time of normal illumination of the room by means of sunshine is even less therefore considerable loading is the share of lamps, and they should be considered.

When all values are recorded, surely multiply final value by 10–20% to create reserve for unforeseen situations. This value also needs to be used for calculation of additional equipment and the area of solar panels.

Scheme of calculation of necessary power

Depending on the number of sunny days and illumination of the site, choose panel type. Completely to provide owner-occupied dwelling, the power indicator of consumption of the house is required. To facilitate calculation it is necessary to make the following:

  • to subtract the operation of devices happening in sun dial from total amount;
  • to separate the remained value into the solar period.

So much electricity in hour has to arrive and remain in the accumulator for normal functioning of the house. But before buying panels, it is necessary to learn the insolation level (quantity of the beams getting on surface) in this region. If installation works in the house with permanent residence, it is necessary to look at the most minimum value in year. And if it is giving for summer accommodation, choose the minimum value for warm season.

Total amount is separated into the level of insolation and performance of the chosen panel. As a result receive the minimum quantity of pieces which are necessary for functioning of the house. At the same time it is important that the tenth shares were rounded up.

Additional equipment

Panels cannot be connected to the house power supply network. For this purpose some more devices are required.

Spare parts:

  • The controller preventing differences of current. The panel can be connected only through it.
  • Accumulator of necessary capacity. Accumulates the direct current arriving from the panel.
  • The inverter - knot, reformative constant in alternating current.

All these mechanisms have to approach to each other. Therefore selection of the compatible devices maintaining certain power is necessary.

Electrification of the house by means of solar panels becomes more popular, and many think of saving on it. Unfortunately, meanwhile production of such energy is more expensive, than from traditional power plant. But according to forecasts within 10 years the situation will change on opposite therefore the investment in own panels will quickly pay off.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team