To extract fire without matches, having at hand only the smoldering tinder - it is a half more of business. It is not less important to know in what way to make fire. Actually, everything depends on assignment of fire, availability of fuel, surrounding situation and stock of time.
General requirements to cultivation of fire
Materials for cultivation of fire have to be easily flammable, for example, reed, dry bush, the dried grass, dry cane or fir twigs, moss, etc. Also shaving from crude sticks will approach. It is strictly forbidden to splash on fire gasoline which quickly ignites since it is possible to get serious burns. Moisten several dry logs and accurately set fire to them.
Three main requirements are imposed to the place of cultivation of fire: it has to be equal, protected from wind and to be at sufficient distance from the objects constituting danger. It is not necessary to make fire on large stones, under the influence of heat they can crack and wound people.
The place intended for fire is cleared of dry grass, branches and moss and dug round. In winter time shovel away snow to the earth to exclude its hit in fire. Though there is way of cultivation of fire on snow. For this purpose it is necessary to cut 6-8 crude poles no more than 10 cm thick and 1.5 m long. Snow is well trampled down, on it poles on which fire is made closely keep within.
Ways of cultivation of fire
"Mole" is applied on slopes in which the niche reminding the oven with small pipe in the top half of back wall with opening to fire surface becomes. In this improvised oven make fire serving for heating or for cooking. "Pole" represents the dug groove which bottom is laid out by stones, on them and make fire. It is desirable to place it under the hung rock or dense krone of trees. Such way of cultivation of fire is very convenient that it does not demand large amount of firewood. On it it is easy to cook food or to boil water. After firewood burns through, closes hole stakes, thin soil layer or grass to keep heat. From above in winter time it is possible to arrange warm comfortable bed. The heated stones put on meat, vegetables in several hours will prepare. At the device of such fire it is necessary to consider that from above firewood burns well, from below smolders and smokes therefore fire can go out without enough the arriving oxygen. It is desirable to dig the narrow pole connected by the channel to the first for air access nearby. "Pyramid" - boughs and logs put in the form of pyramid at which basis stack dry material. Crude firewood will better burn if to make on them notches in the form of shaving. From such fire there is big flame, it can warm, dry clothes. Its main minus is that it quickly burns through. At the way "Asterisk" firewood displays fan or star, shifting them to the center for burn-out measure. Such fire is good the fact that it long burns. "Grid" - firewood stacks ranks at each other in the form of grid. Such way is good in the presence at the same time both dry, and crude firewood as dry in the course of burning dry up crude that gives the chance to fire to burn for a long time. From it a lot of heat turns out that allows to use it in various purposes. "Small fence", or Nodya, represents more difficult design. Into the earth drive in 4 pegs between which in the form of fence stack firewood. Set fire to fire from below. It burns for 10 hours. If to lay dry and crude firewood, gives many heat. The direction of wind along logs will be ideal condition of burning. On both sides from fire display on not thick crude log on distance about a meter that will prevent hit of sparks from fire in the people sleeping nearby. Making fire on the swamp, it is necessary to take care of the base. For this purpose several logs stack in a row, on them make fire of any type. In case of the fire device on tree or on branches, the scaffold is constructed from the stakes put in a row. The scaffold is faced by the turf on which fire is made. In the absence of dry firewood or tools by means of which it would be possible to get firewood fire is made under dry stub. It very long smolders therefore is suitable for long heating.