That your house was firm, bring under it the fundamental basis. The base is support, protection against underground waters, protects the room from cold. It has to be strong, maintain building weight, its shrinkage conducts to troubles.
1. The thoroughness and inviolability of construction is connected with quality of the base. Depending on form and way of support on soil the bases happen: plate, pile, tape and column. Continuous footings, perhaps, the most universal and practical. Owing to this fact they are popular in construction. Under lungs one - or two-storeyed constructions from tree, gas-blocks and other not heavy materials suit melkozaglublenny support. The brick and concrete, seldom rubble stone can be basis for it, but it is more preferable to arrange the reinforced concrete monolithic basis, having laid armature with a diameter not less than 12 cm in sole.
2. Begin mounting with digging of trench on building perimeter – provide calculations of width and depth to experts. The minimum depth of underlay under partitions – 0.5 m, under external walls - 0.7 meters. Installation of the base - heavy, but simple work. Process of receiving monolith is simple - make timbering and fill in in it concrete mix. When mounting in several stages, break between each layer has to be no more than 2 days. The combined base consists of the concrete blocks laid on solution. I do it in buildings with simple configuration.
3. Column support speak for themselves, the basic structural components - brick columns or blocks from concrete. Put them in buildings where it is not going to equip the basement. Such type of the basis cheap, convenient, but is suitable not for all soils. Besides life cycle at them short. Columns are located under external corners and in places of crossing of walls, and between them mount socle.
4. On weak mobile soils the trellised or monolithic reinforced concrete slab under all area of the building - the plate base will be suitable option. Need for especially strong basis arises at multistorey housing on argillo-arenaceous soil.
5. The pile base – the labor-consuming expensive design consisting of separate concrete, steel, concrete or wood piles on which the concrete slab or beams is put. Apply them at weak soils when strong soil lies at considerable depth. Mounting is made in two ways: piles hammer into the soil in finished form or make in the drilled holes. Because of high cost and labor input in private construction apply seldom.
6. Choosing basis under the building, consider some factors: soil type on the building-up site, the freezing layer thickness, architectural features of object, availability of ground waters.