If on personal plot the first symptoms of disease of tomatoes have been noticed, it is necessary to take immediate measures for treatment of sick saplings and to carry out number of preventive measures for not infected plants. It is important to remember that tightening of terms of treatment can lead to loss of essential part of harvest.
For gardeners the tomatoes are mentioned in many reference books as plant quite unpretentious and for good fructification demanding observance of simple conditions: ensuring enough heat, light, water and regular fertilizer. But in cultivation of this plant there are also negative sides to which, first of all, diseases of tomatoes belong.
Fungal diseases of tomatoes
It is possible to carry gray decay to the most dangerous and quite widespread diseases of tomatoes of fungal origin. The disease is diagnosed on emergence of the damp gray spot capable for short period to cover all land parts of plant.
Bad airing of greenhouses, excess humidity, non-compliance with temperature condition can be the cause of gray decay. In the preventive purposes tomatoes need to provide good ventilation, to carry out mulching of the soil by peat after watering, to carry out spraying by strong infusion of the crushed heads of garlic or garlic arrows.
At the first signs of emergence of gray decay delete all struck leaves not to allow penetration fungal dispute in stalk. It is desirable for scrap of foliage to carry out to sunny weather that cuts on branches have managed to dry up and drag on.
Not less often such disease as black leg also occurs in hothouse tomatoes. Characteristic symptom of this disease is darkening of stalk, its thinning and the subsequent rotting. As well as at gray decay, progressing of disease is promoted by bad ventilation, excess humidity, sharp temperature drops.
To avoid spread of infection, full replacement of soil is recommended where the sick plant and carrying out disinfection of the soil around this place grows. Before disinfecting the earth needs to be loosened carefully then to process solution of permanganate of potassium or formalin.
At acute shortage of contents in the soil of calcium, excess of nitrogen, unstable temperature condition and low-quality watering the fruits can be struck with topmost decay. The disease is shown in the form of the pressed spots of brown color which begin to emit further liquid and to rot.
To stop spread of disease, use medicines with the maintenance of pine forest and calcium with which solution spray bushes; carry out root fertilizing by calcic saltpeter or cretaceous suspension; process fruits, leaves and stalks of tomatoes infusion of wood ashes.
Viral diseases of tomatoes
If on land parts of saplings there are brown strips and spots, stalks become brittle and slow down growth, then the probability that thus very unpleasant disease – strik tomatoes proves is high. The disease affects both greenhouse, and soil plants, can be transmitted through the soil, seeds, the garden tool, by means of drops of juice of the infected plants at pasynkovaniye or sword-play. Strik, as well as the majority of other diseases of tomatoes is easier to warn, than to treat. As preventive measures the following is recommended:
- obligatory etchback of seeds in solution of margantsovokisly potassium or calcic saltpeter;
- when watering seedling to carry out disinfecting of the soil of 1% by potassium permanganate solution;
- to make annual replacement of soil when landing tomatoes;
- to begin pasynkovaniye of plants with obviously healthy plants and it is obligatory to disinfect tools;
- at initial defeat of adult separate plants to process them solution of chloride potassium. In case of the started disease the infected tomatoes need to be removed from bed and to burn.
Emergence on leaves of tomatoes of the motley spots alternating with healthy sites and forming intricate pattern speaks about defeat by such disease as mosaic. The disease can be observed as at the saplings growing in the open ground and at greenhouse plants. Characteristic of this virus is its fast distribution: healthy tomatoes can be infected at seedling sword-play, nipping of top leaves, forming of bush, hit of juice of the infected plants.
To avoid emergence of virus epidemic which can lead to loss of all harvest it is necessary to remove immediately from beds all infected tomatoes and to carry out disinfection of the soil. For prevention of disease the obligatory etchback of seeds, watering of seedling by weak solution of potassium permanganate, the timely balanced fertilizing of plants, pasynkovaniye the sterile tool, disembarkation between beds of the plants which are frightening off the wreckers having virus is recommended.