Construction of the house begins with planning and laying of basis - the base. The base is one of the most important constructive parts of the house, at the wrong choice distortions, deformations and excessive consumption of materials will follow.
1. Continuous footing is executed in the form of the tapes deepened to the earth. Tapes lean on sandy pillow. At excavation of trench it is necessary to consider soil frost depth. The bases as execution are divided into monolithic and assembly of blocks (FSB is normal). Monolithic can be made of concrete with any large filler or of concrete with armature. Continuous footings are suitable for construction of the two-storeyed building with the basement and walls up to 400 mm thick. Advantages: reliability, possibility of stage-by-stage construction of the base. Shortcomings: restrictions in respect of architecture.
2. The column base represents number of the columns driven on perimeter of the house or the concrete which is filled in in the drilled openings with armature. From above columns reinforced concrete beams keep within. This base is suitable for two-storeyed houses from tree or from light materials up to 1000 kg/m3. Soil which will become basis for the base has to adhere to continuous temperature. It is impossible to allow serious differences. Advantages: low cost, universality of mounting, high speed of work. Shortcomings: strong shrinkage, restrictions on loading.
3. The plate base is the plate buried in soil and laid on concrete or sandy pad, usually 30-100 cm. The plate is carried out from mass concrete with armature from 12 mm to 25 mm. Saturated sands, quicksands and other weak soil are better basis for the base of this type. Height of the house can be higher than 3 floors with loading of 20-25 t/sq.m. Advantages: rigidity of design, possibility of re-planning. Shortcomings: the high cost, impossibility to arrange the basement or the first floor.
4. The pile base consists of the piles or clustered pillar from above united by reinforced concrete slab. Piles can be wood (made of the processed pine), reinforced concrete and also metal. Wood piles are suitable only for easy houses to 2 floors. These bases are applied where weak soil (marshy, friable) on which it is necessary to place big and powerful buildings. Advantages: profitability, high speed of work, durability, lack of performance of excess works, opportunity to build houses on primershy soil. Shortcomings: impossibility to build the first floor and construction of the basement.