Historical types of outlook: concepts and treatments

Historical types of outlook: concepts and treatments

From an extreme antiquity the people sought to learn the world around and appointment of the person in him. Knowledge and representations, living positions and standards of behavior, the shown feelings and emotions accumulated by generations are basic elements of outlook. Throughout existence of mankind the views of the world changed, together with it there were new action programs of people, motives of their behavior were revised. Mythology, religion and philosophy – historically developed outlook types.

Surrounding life forms daily outlook at people. But if the person estimates reality, relying on logic and reason, it is necessary to speak about theoretical outlook. Among people of a certain nation or a class there is a public outlook, and it is peculiar to the individual individual. Views of surrounding reality in consciousness of people are reflected from two parties: emotional (attitude) and intellectual (outlook). These parties are in own way shown in the existing outlook types which in a certain way remain so far and find reflection in science, culture, ordinary views of people, traditions and customs.

The earliest type of outlook

Long ago people identified themselves with the world around, and for an explanation of the phenomena occurring around during an era of primitiveness there were myths. The period of mythological outlook proceeded throughout dozens of the millennia, developing and being shown in different forms. The mythology as type of outlook existed during formation of human society. By means of myths in primitive society tried to explain questions of the universe, origin of the person, his life and death. The mythology acted as a universal form of consciousness in which initial knowledge, culture, views and beliefs united. People animated the occurring natural phenomena, considered own activity way of manifestation of forces of nature. During a primitive era the people thought that the nature of the existing things has the general genetic beginning, and the human community occurred from one ancestor. World outlook consciousness of primitive society is reflected in numerous myths: cosmogonic (interpreting an origin of the universe), antropogonichesky (pointing out origin of the person), smyslozhiznenny (considering the birth and death, purpose of the person and his destiny), eschatological (directed to a prophecy, future). Many myths explain emergence of the vital cultural benefits, such as fire, agriculture, crafts. They also answer questions as among people social rules were established, certain ceremonies and customs appeared.

The outlook based on belief

The religious outlook arose on belief of the person in supernatural, playing a major role in life. According to this form of outlook, exists heavenly, otherworldly, the world and terrestrial. The belief and beliefs, as a rule, which are not demanding theoretical proofs and sensual experience are its cornerstone. The mythological outlook laid the foundation for emergence of religion and culture. The religious outlook gives only an assessment to surrounding reality and regulates actions of the person in it. Perception of the world is based only on belief. The idea of God takes the main place here: he the creating first principle of everything that exists. In this type of outlook spiritual prevails over corporal. In terms of historical development of society the religion played an important role at formation of new human relations, promoted formation of the centralized states at a slaveholding and feudal system.

Philosophy as outlook type

In the course of transition to class society there was a complete view of the person of surrounding reality. The aspiration to establish the prime cause of all phenomena and things makes the main essence of philosophy. In translation from Greek the word "philosophy" designates "love for wisdom", and the Ancient Greek wise man Pythagoras is considered the founder of a concept. Mathematical, physical, astronomical knowledge was gradually accumulated, writing extended. Together with it there was desire to reflect, doubt and prove. Lives in philosophical type of outlook of people and works in the natural and social world. The philosophical outlook essentially differs in the existing ways of judgment and the solution of questions from previous. Reflections over general laws and problems between the person and the world are based in philosophy not on feelings and images, and on reason. Concrete historical living conditions of society, experience and knowledge of people of different eras made the sphere of philosophical problems. "Eternal" problems have no right to apply for the absolute truth during any period of existence of philosophy. It demonstrates that at the concrete level of development of society the main philosophical problems "grow ripe" and are solved according to living conditions of human society, level of its development. In every era there are "wise men" ready to raise important philosophical questions and to find answers to them.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team