As professional culinary specialists speak, sauce is an aerobatics. The taste of a main course in many respects depends on quality of creation and use of sauce. Preparation of sauce – the same art as creation of a picture. The correct consistence, a bouquet of aromas, refined taste – whether it defines beauty of a masterpiece of his author?!
Today it will be a question of the best-known and untwisted French sauce which won fame practically in all kitchens of the world. It by all means enters tops of many known ratings. Cooks can call it differently, but mix of flour, oil and milk remains an invariable basis always. Many will tell: "Well and that here it? It is known испокон times a combination of products". And still … Before us classics of culinary art. Everyone who is engaged in cooking has to know it.
We speak about the Béchamel sauce.
Dark pages in the history of creation of "white" sauce
There are several unchecked versions of history of origin of excellent sauce.
Generally, were able to mix wheat flour and animal fat and in Ancient Egypt, and in Ancient Greece. Already then cooks understood that flour is natural thickener. But here the idea of compound of flour, animal fat and cow's milk brought to perfection could arise only in "an alm a mater" cook art – in France.
There is an assumption that at the time of the king Louis XIV loving any culinary delicacy Herman Louie de Bechamel, the marquis de Nointel who had extensive knowledge of the field of art at court served and not only … Over time he was brought closer to the king and became the majordomo, that is the operating household. Here, allegedly, he both created the well-known sauce and gave it the name.
Other version says that the dish was invented by the court chef, a certain Pierre de La Varenn, and the name suggested to appropriate in honor of the marquis under the name of "Béchamel".
These data belong to the middle of the 17th century.
And some historians of culinary art claim that such sauce was served to fowl and also de Nointel was added to soups even long before appearance of the marquis.
Separate study is deserved by the version according to which required sauce was delivered to France from Italy in the middle of the 16th century by Ekaterina Medici's cooks after her betrothal with Henry de Valois, future French king Henry II. So it or not, but in Italy enjoys still wide popularity the Balzamella sauce, very similar on structure.
And still "Béchamel" it is known to us as primordially French dish.
Preparation of the classical Béchamel sauce
So, for creation of a masterpiece in its classical option it will be required:
- wheat flour, it is desirable, the second grade (for greater advantage for an organism) and a desi – in the equal number, for example, of 100 grams of oil and 3 tablespoons of flour;
- milk – 1 liter (it can be necessary more or less depending on desirable consistence of the final product);
- one cleaned bulb and five гвоздичек for production onions to a kluta;
- a small bunch of parsley and a piece of leek – for aromatization of sauce (it is possible, of course, and without it to manage or replace with any fragrant spices like Provence herbs – literally 0.5 teaspoons);
- salt to taste.
Here, actually, and all set of products.
For a start it is necessary to prepare so-called "ру" (from the French roux – red color) – a basis for the Béchamel sauce, the mix of flour and oil used as thickener.
On a heated plate we kindle a desi in a stewpan and we add wheat flour. Constantly we mix the formed weight by means of a spoon (at this stage the nimbus isn't recommended as mix to it will actively stick), we watch that didn't burn, respectively, regulating heating of a plate.
"Ru" happens three types: white, golden and red. Everything depends on duration of roasting of mix of flour and oil. It on the fan.
During preparation "ру" it is possible to feel pleasant nut aroma. What the product will heat up more, especially brown it will become. The main thing not to overroast!
Further we put aside the prepared basis and we are accepted to fragrances. We will make a bulb to a kluta. For this purpose we clean the whole bulb and we stick in it five cloves. Then we take a parsley bunch, a small piece of leek and we tie up a cord. In total – fragrances are ready.
We return a stewpan from prepared "ру" on the warmed plate. We begin to add gradually to mix milk (as I already spoke, the amount of milk depends on desirable consistence of ready sauce). Milk has to be normal room temperature. Now we work with a nimbus, continuously stirring slowly with a product. At the same time lumps have to disperse. Temperature of heating of a plate – average. Right at the beginning, when it is quite liquid weight, we will put in it a bulb to a kluta and the products connected by a cord. Instead of parsley and leek it is possible to fill a half of a tea spoon of Provence herbs or other similar spices in a stewpan. We will add salt to taste.
Gradually weight in a stewpan will begin to get thick. We continue constantly it to stir slowly with a nimbus. All process will borrow minutes 10-15. When sauce reaches the necessary consistence, we will set aside it, we will get from a stewpan a bulb to a kluta and a bunch of the tied-up herbs.
In principle, everything, sauce is ready. We won't forget that in process of its cooling, it will get thick still. If sauce becomes too dense, we will dilute it with milk.
Such classical "Béchamel" can be served to anything: to a bird, fish, meat, etc. And it is possible to use, for example, for preparation of a lasagna, a musaka.