Philosophy - knowledge first in the history of the world and the principles of life of the person in this world. It is difficult to define a concrete subject of studying this science therefore it is defined widely. There are also several directions of philosophy allocated in a study subject.
1. Philosophy – historically the first form of theoretical and rational comprehension of the world. To define its subject quite difficult therefore currently there are several definitions. It is connected with the fact that there is no uniform interpretation of essence and purpose of philosophy in the history of culture. Besides, at the beginning of development the philosophy covered too much all knowledge of the world. Later this knowledge became objects of separate sciences, for example, of knowledge of the Universe. And the philosophy subject from it became is unreasonably wide.
2. In philosophy there are many different schools and the directions, and each of them in own way understands a philosophy subject. It is very problematic to give it it definition which would suit all at once. Also moods of time for philosophies which passed already several historical stages in the development affect. For example, orientations of classical and post-classical philosophy differ.
3. The general in definition of a subject of philosophy different approaches it is possible to remove the following: any philosophical problem anyway affects fundamental meanings of life of the person. The philosophy, one may say, goes from the person to the world. Therefore also its subject is inevitably connected with a showdown of the person with the world. The world includes society of other people, culture, the nature. Philosophy not all aspects of these relations, only the most significant interest. Namely – the principles and bases of life of the person in the world.
4. Whether existence of such common line allows philosophy to remain more less complete science. At all historical stages the general subjects of a research remain. Therefore the philosophy subject in the most general sense can be considered knowledge of the limit bases of life of the nature, the person, society and culture. It is very wide formulation, actually specific philosophers study much more concrete aspects. Someone is interested in a reality problem, someone – a problem of point of human existence.
5. In the studied subject philosophical knowledge can be divided into several directions. The ontology studies life, the principles and the bases of all real. Gnoseology – knowledge philosophy. Epistemologiya – philosophy of scientific knowledge, she studies specifics of scientific research. The philosophical anthropology is a doctrine about the person and versatility of his life in the world. An axiology – the doctrine about values. Prakseologiya – activity philosophy. Social philosophy – philosophy of society.