Tribes of Cumans were the southern neighbors of Kievan Rus'. According to some sources the Cumans were primogenitors of such people as Kazakhs, Bashkirs, the Crimean Tatars and Karachays. At the beginning of the 11th century these nomadic people located in the Black Sea steppes, having expelled torok and Pechenegs from there.
1. Nomads swimmers reached lower reaches of Danube and became owners of the great steppe which began to carry the name the Polovtsian steppe. Cumans were excellent equestrians and fighters. Having put on itself helmets and an armor, having armed with onions, sabers and copies, troops of Cumans safely went into battle. They conducted a battle so: made an ambush, waited for appearance of the opponent, and then sharply and unexpectedly arranged defeat. Prior to mongolo-tatar invasion the tribes of Cumans made attacks to the southern Russia. They savagely plundered log huts, devastated fertile lands, captured prisoners who were turned into slaves or sold in the markets. They often returned back captives for an award in the form of silver and gold. The commanders of Polovtsian troops stolen wealth divided equally among themselves.
2. Contrary to some representations, Cumans were not the ragamuffins robbers continually ruining the earth of the neighbors. Historians quite often call these people "aristocrats of steppes". Despite a nomadic way of life the Cumans had cities. Only their cities did not stand still, and moved on the world. Cumans were engaged in cattle breeding. As soon as horses and sheep devastated meadows, tribes moved to the new place. The steppe nature created fine conditions for a nomadic way of life and a pasture of the cattle. However in cold winters due to the lack of the strong warmed dwellings it was necessary to nomads hardly.
3. Cumans mainly ate what was received thanks to cultivation of the cattle. Their main diet was made by milk, meat and a millet. Koumiss was favourite drink of Cumans. The livestock not only fed, but also dressed the owners. From wool from skins of animals the Cumans weaved shirts, sewed caftans and trousers. Women most often were in charge of housekeeping while men were involved in attacks and military campaigns.
4. Cumans were pagans. They worshipped forces of nature and the animals represented in the form of totems. God of a thunderstorm and lightning – Tengri-han was the Supreme deity of Cumans. The people treated it yours faithfully and fear. Because of fear to be punished, people did not dare to wash the clothes. Among them there was a belief that Tengri-han, having noticed the person behind washing, will kill him with a thunder at once. Without wishing to anger the deity, rich men immediately threw out the dirty and become permeated with the smell clothes. Poor people could not afford it therefore they went in the greased frills, and from them always terribly smelled. On the special account the Cumans had shamans. They were considered as conductors in a next world and intermediaries between the world of people and the world of the dead. Shamans were able to predict future, to cure foes and to communicate kind and evil spirits.