For life of living beings one of the main supporting factors is water. However not everywhere on its planet it is enough. In droughty areas the animals and plants should stock up with water for a long time.
As animals reserve water
The example which for certain first of all remembers everyone is a camel. Living in deserts where rains go extremely seldom, and moisture is only in underground waters under thickness of sand, camels perfectly feel in a heat and a drought. First, camels sweat a little, so, evaporation of moisture through an integument happens very slowly. But the main thing that from where these animals have water - they are helped by humps. But they, of course, consist not of water.
The hump is a fat education. Fat is oxidized and will be transformed to water. Thanks to such transformation of fat, also other animals reserve water. Fat at them is not directly under skin, otherwise they would die of overheating. So, fat deposits which will be transformed to water at jerboas, fat tail sheep and monitor lizards are in a tail or its basis.
Seafarers always loved meat of turtles. But caught them not only because of it. If water by the ship reached a limit, water was taken from a bladder of a turtle. Thanks to an elephant turtle, all team could get drunk.
As reserve plant water
Before stocking up with water, plants need to extract it. A peculiar pump is the root system of plants. Most often the plant reminds an iceberg, its most part – a root – is hidden from eyes. It should extort water from considerable depth and to lift it on even big height, delivering to tips of all branches and leaves. In deserts of a plant also use powerful roots which make huge work on pumping out of water from subsoil.
The properties of plants allowing them to survive in the desert arose not at once. They appeared in the course of natural selection. Initially much more types of flora grew in deserts. But could overcome severe conditions not all.
And reserve plants water both in cytoplasm, and in a kernel, and in a cellular cover. But the main internal water supply of plants is in vacuoles where juice contains. Among plants the main champion on ability to reserve water is the cactus. In the hottest and droughty days it all the same remains juicy. With it it is helped by prickles. It is known that the more surface area, the is stronger evaporation from it. Therefore in the desert there are almost no deciduous plants with wide leaves. And here cactus prickles, thin and small, perfectly hold moisture. Cacti belong to succulents that means "juicy", crassulas, an aloe also concern them. They have a thick, fleshy trunk in which water stocks up. There is it thanks to a set of mucous substances inside and also to a thick cuticle and a wax raid. Together they well hold moisture in a plant. And an aloe the ridge stalk helps to hold and reserve moisture.