As electrons move

As electrons move

Electron — the stable elementary particle bearing a negative charge. The size of a charge of an electron is taken for unit of measure of electric charge of elementary particles.


1. Electrons are in the constant movement, rotating around a positively charged atomic nucleus. The sum of negative charges of electrons is equal to the sum of positive charges of protons of a kernel therefore atom is neutral. The movement of electrons around a kernel not chaotic, its regularities are described by the planetary theory of the structure of atom.

2. The planetary model of atom was offered at the beginning of the twentieth century by the English physicist Rutherford. Simply, according to Rutherford's theory atom is similar to a star system in which planets electrons rotate on certain orbits around a star atom.

3. By means of laws of mechanics to describe the movement of an electron as points, it is impossible. The electron does not move with rated speed on the set trajectory, and with a certain frequency appears in a zone of the rotation around an atomic nucleus. Such zone is not a linear orbit, and represents the orbital existing under laws of quantum mechanics. The interacting orbitals of all electrons create an electron shell around an atomic nucleus.

4. The electron shell of atom is non-uniform, in it power levels with a different force of an attraction of electrons to a kernel are expressed. On layers, close to a kernel, the electrons are attracted to a kernel stronger, than on more remote. The closer to a kernel, the there are less electrons in an orbital. The greatest possible number of electrons at the power level N is defined by a formula: N=2n²где n is number of power level.

5. At orbitals different forms. So, the electronic cloud of the first level has the steadiest form — spherical. More remote layers are extended ganteleobrazno, and at peripheral orbits very difficult configuration. Such levels are unstable, electrons move on them with an escalating speed, communication with a kernel more and more weakens, and energy of electrons collects.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team