At first people used what was found on the Earth's surface, without suspecting what infinite treasures disappear more deeply. But in process of development of a civilization the underground storerooms opened for them the doors. The mankind learned to find and extract the necessary materials even in very hard-to-reach spots, having invented for this purpose a huge number of mechanisms and ways.
1. Minerals are the rocks, minerals used in the sphere of production of goods, in the national economy. Now about 250 types of minerals are known. They are subdivided on: - combustible (coal, oil, natural gas, peat, combustible slates); - ore (ores of ferrous, non-ferrous metals); - nonmetallic (sand, gravel, clay, limestone, various salts); - kamnetsvetny raw materials (jasper, agate, onyx, chalcedony, nephrite); - gemstones (diamond, emerald, sapphire, ruby); - hydromineral (underground fresh and mineral waters); - mining and chemical raw materials (apatites, phosphates, barite, borata)
2. Minerals at will of the person turn into the most various necessary things which ensure safety, warm, transport, feed. They are necessary in the modern world everywhere. Practically all electric power is developed at the stations burning coal, gas, fuel oil, radioactive materials. The most part of transport works at energy of combustible minerals.
3. A basis of construction industry are rocks. Ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy also completely uses mineral raw materials, as well as chemical industry where its share reaches 75%. The majority of metals and alloys is used as constructional (black, alloying, color), in mechanical engineering, in electronics. Ornamental stones, such as jasper, ruby, are used in jewelry. Diamond, thanks to the hardness and durability, is used for cutting of solid materials, and in the facetted look is diamond. Mountain mineral apatite is necessary for production of phosphoric fertilizers. Transparent crystals of barite are used in optical devices.
4. Mineral stocks of depths of the earth are not boundless. And though process of education and accumulation of natural wealth never stops, rates of this restoration are absolutely incommensurable to rates of use of terrestrial resources.