Carbon is one of chemical elements, the Page symbol having in the periodic table. Its serial number – 6, atomic mass – 12.0107 g/mol, atom radius – 91 pm. Carbon is obliged by the name to the Russian chemists who at first appropriated to an element the name "ugletvor", then transformed to modern.
1. Carbon in the industry still of an extreme antiquity when smiths applied it when smelting metals was used. Two allotropic modifications of chemical element – the diamond used in jewelry and industrially the industries and also graphite for which discovery the Nobel Prize was awarded recently are widely known. Still Antoine Lavoisier made the first experiments with so-called pure coal, then its properties were partially studied by group of scientists – Guiton de Morvo, actually Lavoisier, Bertholet and Furkrua who described the experience in the book "Method of the Chemical Nomenclature".
2. For the first time free carbon was removed by Englishman Tennant who passed phosphorus vapors over the heated chalk and received calcium phosphate together with carbon. Frenchman Guiton de Morvo continued experiments of the British colleague. He carefully heated diamond therefore turned it into graphite and later into coal acid.
3. Carbon has quite various physical properties because of formation of chemical bonds of various type. It is already known that this chemical element is constantly formed in the lower layers of a stratosphere, and its properties from 50th years provided to carbon the place on the NPP and in atomic hydrogen bombs.
4. Physics allocates several forms or structures of carbon: tetrichesky, trigonal and diagonal. It has also several crystal variations – diamond, graphene, graphite, karbin, lonsdaleite, nanodiamond, fullerene, fullerit, carbon fiber, nanofibre and nanotubes. Amorphous carbon has forms and: activated and charcoal, fossil coal or anthracite, kammenougolny or oil coke, glass carbon, technical carbon, soot and a carbon nanofilm. Physics divides also kolasterny variations – astralena, dicarbons and carbon nanocones.
5. Carbon is quite inert in the conditions of lack of extreme temperatures, and at achievement of their upper threshold is capable to connect to other chemical elements, showing the strongest recovery properties.
6. Perhaps, the most known use of carbon is the pencil industry where it is mixed with clay for smaller fragility. It is applied also as lubricant means at very high or low temperatures, and high temperature of melting gives the chance to make of carbon strong crucibles for filling of metals. Graphite also perfectly carries electric current that gives big prospects for application it in electronics.