Ethanol – the colourless organic matter possessing a pungent specific smell. It is used by the industries, in laboratories - as the best organic solvent, in medicine – as fine antiseptics. Ethyl alcohol is also applied to production of alcoholic products. Receive it in various ways.
1. Receiving ethanol in the course of fermentation is on the first place. Glucose or glucose are fermented, alcohol and carbon dioxide is as a result formed. Allocation of vials of gas testifies to incompleteness of process. Only when carbon dioxide ceases to be emitted, it is possible to say that process is completed, more alcohol will not be formed. Schematically receiving alcohol from glucose it is possible to present reactions in the form: C? H?? O? = fermentation = C? H? OH +CO?.
2. For receiving grape wine with the content of ethyl alcohol of 16%, it is possible to use grape juice since glucose in it contains in a free look. Not less widespread way – fermentation. For implementation of this method use potatoes. It is made, cooled and add malt; it contains mix of enzymes under the influence of which at addition of yeast, alcohol is formed.
3. There is some other chemical ways at which of more simple substances, such as ethane and ethylene, by means of transformations it is possible to receive ethanol. The first way - ethylene hydration. Work on ethylene sulfuric acid. As a result at you ethylsulfuric acid has to turn out: CH? =CH? + H? SO? = CH? - CH? - OSO? ON.Dalee ethylsulfuric acid is subjected to hydrolysis: CH? - CH? - OSO? OH + H? O = C? H? OH + H? SO?. Ethyl oxide therefore the received mix needs the subsequent cleaning will be an intermediate product. Cleaning of products of reaction is based on a difference in temperatures of boiling of ethanol and ethyl oxide.
4. The second way – ethylene hydration. Hydration is carried out under pressure, at a temperature of 300 °C: CH? =CH? + H? O = C? H? OH.
5. The third way – receiving ethanol from ethane in the alkaline environment with the subsequent cleaning. At the first stage it is formed brometan, on the second - ethyl alcohol: CH? - CH? + HBr = CH? - CH? Br + HBr; CH? - CH? Br + H? O = = C? H? OH +HBr.