Mineral food of plants – one of the most important conditions of their activity. It consists in absorption from the soil of water and the inorganic salts dissolved in it. The shortcoming or surplus of any element breaks growth and development of a plant.
What minerals are necessary to a plant
Most of all the plant needs nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, other elements – smaller quantity. At short-reception at least of one of substances activity of a plant is broken, and the surplus of one element cannot replace a lack of another.
All inorganic ions perform different functions in life of a vegetable organism. So, nitrogen is necessary for the normal growth of a plant, phosphorus – for maturing of fruits, potassium – for the descending outflow (from leaves to roots) organic matter.
Mechanism of absorption of nutrients
Seaweed and a number of water plants acquire mineral substances all surface of a body. At the higher plants this function is performed by a root system: through root hairs water and salts come to a plant. The soaking-up surface of a root increases thanks to a large number of root hairs. Each hair is covered with slime and densely contacts to the soil. It facilitates absorption of water and the nutrients dissolved in it. From a hair liquid moves to the next cages of a root, then – to vessels, and further under pressure rises up, to other bodies of a plant.
Whether it is possible to operate soil food of a plant
That the plant developed normal, at the environment surrounding roots there have to be all necessary nutrients. Most often such environment is the soil. The most important quality of the soil – its fertility, i.e. ability to provide a plant with the moisture and mineral substances sufficient for its activity. The productivity of cultures in many respects depends on fertility of the soil. As at withdrawal of a harvest the soil is "left" by some amount of nutrients, the flooring is gradually exhausted. It is possible to fill fertility by entering into the soil of organic and mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are waste of animals (bird's dung, manure) and the died-off parts of living organisms (humus, peat). Mineral fertilizers are potash, phosphoric and nitric. Use as well the microfertilizers containing a pine forest, zinc, copper, cobalt and other elements. Depending on a species of a plant and its requirements, fertilizers bring in different terms. For example, it is better to bring manure in advance, at autumn processing of the earth, long before crops of seeds. Mineral salts – just before crops or in parallel with it, feeding up plants also during their growth. At timely and correct application of fertilizers it is possible to achieve a big crop.