Where the liver and what it performs functions in an organism is located, any person knows. And here location of a holedokh and that it, is known not by all. This small isthmus of a bilious channel carries out an important role - digestion process acceleration. Holedokh at the wrong way of life is exposed to serious pathological processes.
Holedokh (ductus choledochus) is the general bilious channel of tubular structure of greenish color which connects channels between a liver and a gall bladder. Is located on an outer edge of a liver, passes between petals of the small sealing gland behind a gepatoduldenalny bulb, goes down between a pancreas and a 12-perstny gut. It carries out outflow of bile on capillaries in a gut gleam at a faterovy nipple, thereby providing normal process of digestion.
Holedokh has certain sizes, being in a condition of norm. Without any deviations and pathologies, its length varies ranging from 2 up to 12 centimeters. At a half of adult population it makes 6 cm. Width of the general section of the canal on all length is 150 millimeters. At the same time wall thickness changes from 2 to 8 millimeters, from a smaller indicator to bigger, along the line from a liver to the place of an entrance to a gut. At each organism the sizes of this body have the individual values revealed in the course of inspection. However, the average value – diameter of 3 millimeters is taken as a basis of indicators of the device ultrasonography.
Changes of wall thickness due to increase in structure of fabric, tells about the happening pathological processes in body. At the same time the patient feels the painful symptoms in the right podreberye irradiating in a clavicle or a syndrome of a "stupid" stomach.
Structure of a holedokh
In the general bilious channel 4 departments are allocated:
- Supraduodenalny, length is up to 4 centimeters. Is located on edge of a hepatic petal from knot of a bubbly channel to a top of a 12-perstny gut.
- Retroduodenal, length is up to 1-2 centimeters. Is located zabryushinno behind a 12-perstny gut to an entrance to a pancreas.
- Pancreatic, length is up to 3 centimeters. Concerns a pancreas head.
- Duodenal, length is up to 1-2 centimeters. Is along all wall of a duodenum.
Inflammatory processes in any of sites lead to serious pathologies of bodies, especially a liver, a gall bladder and a pancreas.
In medicine several types of the pathological processes happening in a channel gleam are allocated. All of them are connected with expansion or narrowing of a crack of a holedokh. The main are:
- The congenital or acquired defects (an underdevelopment of fabric of body in the course of an embryogenesis, cysts).
- Diseases of biliary tract without development of a tumor (sand, stones, narrowing of a crack of a gleam of a channel).
- Inflammatory new growths (holetsistopankreatit, holangit).
On a photo of the roentgenogram the stone in a holedokha is visible.
Can lead any of the revealed deviations in structure of fabric of a holedokh to various diseases of all organism in general. Therefore it is very important to pay in due time attention to discomfort in a stomach and to see in due time a doctor for an expanded laboratory research.
Causes of pathological processes
Result of violation of normal functioning of a liver or gall bladder is inflammatory process of any of sections of the canal. Three main groups, developing of diseases are allocated:
- Surgery consequences, heavy blows in a liver which led to a rupture of fabric. There is a narrowing of a gleam of a crack and its structure.
- A congestion of worms, formation of sand or stones in bilious channels, consolidation of the bile. It brings to hypostasis of fabric of walls of a channel, formation of hems and decrease in outflow of bile.
- Post-traumatic actions lead to formation of tumors in a liver, a pancreas and it squeezes holedokh. As a result of compression of a gleam, the movement of bile is broken, digestive process slows down and there is dysfunction in an organism to accumulation of toxins.
It is possible to carry three important diseases to the main reasons for violation of norm of a channel:
- The functional disorder of outflow of bile leading to jaundice and cirrhosis at the expense of a congestion of concrements. Obligatory surgical intervention for elimination of a holedokholitiaz is required. It is considered the most dangerous pathology in a human body and can lead to a lethal outcome.
- Angiokholit or infection of bilious channels. On a lymph microbes from the blood course, intestines get. An infection source usually are cats, carriers of toxoplasma. At the initial stage to be carried out medicinal therapy.
- Inflammation of a gall bladder. Penetration of bacteria, development of negative microflora leads to narrowing of a gleam of a channel and violation of outflow of bile. At the expense of the formed stones, there is an obstruction of capillaries of bilious channels.
Diagnosis of pathologies
At the address to the doctor with complaints to unpleasant symptoms, burning, pains, sour taste in a mouth - the directions on carrying out a number of inspections in the conditions of a hospital are written out. Additional procedures, besides the anamnesis of the patient collected during the poll, are:
- biochemical and general blood test;
- analysis of urine;
- crops a calla on eggs of helminths;
- Ultrasonography of an abdominal cavity.
Ultrasonic survey is carried out without fail if the patient complains of severe pains in the right podreberye, yellowing of skin and skler of eyes, blood to Calais.
In case of impossibility of production of the exact diagnosis, can appoint in addition MRI or a computer tomography of the specified area. In addition, resort to diagnostics by means of a contrast radiological research and a puncture of a channel in a hard-to-reach spot.
After carrying out high-quality inspection, identification of the cause of pathology the doctor will be able correctly to pick up types of treatment.
So in case of detection of stones in a gall bladder or channels the surgery on removal of concrements will be performed. Medicamentous escort of the patient to his absolute recovery will be in addition appointed. Operation is performed by means of the laparoskop leaving only three small holes in a human body in a scope. It accelerates process of healing of the injured sites of skin.
The applied medicines:
- antibiotics of new generation with wide area of impact on microorganisms, for elimination of complications;
- the anesthetizing medicines, spazmoanalgetik;
- anthelminthic means.
At detection of parasites in a holedokha, the doctor appoints anti-inflammatory therapy, adds antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity (tetracycline row) and anthelminthic medicines (Piperazin, Albendazol, Levamizol). During aggravation the haemo misinformation, isotonic solution, B6 vitamin can appoint in addition infusions. In addition, sounding of a channel under control of the ultrasonography device for elimination of stagnation of bile and a drainage will be carried out. After performing intensive therapy, the expert will recommend to keep to a diet, rules of personal hygiene and the correct way of life.
At more difficult actions, at identification of oncological processes, there are a chemotherapy, excision of new growths.
Are the key to human health: the balanced and balanced diet, regular training by sport or feasible physical exercises in house conditions, refusal of addictions. In addition to exclude from a food allowance all fat, sharp, food. To eat the fresh vegetables rich with cellulose, vitamins, to drink enough water. Having felt the first discomfort in a liver, at once to see a doctor. It is important to remember – holedokh the valuable site for an organism and any dysfunction in its work speaks about violation of digestive system in general.