How to carry out transformations in chemistry

How to carry out transformations in chemistry

Chemical transformations are transformations of some substances (reagents) into others, and reaction takes place without change in structures of atomic kernels of elements. How chemical reactions are carried out?


1. Very often chemical reaction can proceed only in solution. In such cases to bring initial substances in a dry form into interaction it is almost useless: reaction either will not go at all, or will proceed with very small speed. Therefore at first dissolve initial substances, and then mix in reactionary capacity.

2. In order that course of reaction became possible, you need to create such situation at which there will be a temperature change. For example, ammonium bichromate decomposition which is one of the most beautiful, spectacular connections. This reaction received eruptionvolcanothe name " " as it is followed by big allocation of heat, formation of volcanic ash and a sheaf of bright red sparks. This reaction according to the following scheme proceeds: (NH4) 2Cr2O7 = Cr2O3 + N2 + 4H2O

3. In order that this reaction began, you need to heat an initial product, that is ammonium bichromate salt. Place an iron leaf with salt over a flame of a bunzenovy torch. Or light the alcohol poured in "a volcano muzzle". Reaction will be followed by such strong allocation of heat that need for additional heating will disappear at once.

4. Very many reactions go only in the presence of the catalyst. Therefore they are called catalytic. The catalysis is homogeneous and heterogeneous, everything depends on a phase condition of reagents. Extremely widespread in wildlife and in a human body the enzymatic processes are catalytic reactions.

5. The group of reactions for which course the whole complex of external influences, for example, temperature change, pressure, use of catalysts is necessary is very numerous. A classical case – aromatization of saturated hydrocarbons, for example, synthesis of benzene from N hexane. Reaction goes according to the general scheme: C6H14 = C6H6 + 4H2

6. High temperature (about 550 degrees), elevated pressure and also the difficult catalyst, that is platinum with additives which is applied on the basis containing oxide of aluminum or chrome is necessary for course of the above-stated reaction.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team