Ammonium chloride – the colourless crystal substance soluble in water and having small hygroscopicity. It is used in pharmaceutical industry, in metallurgy, for production of fertilizers. It is possible to receive it as in industrial, and in vitro.
It is required to you
- - measured flask
- - test tube
- - reactants (HCl, NH₄OH, (NH ₄) ₂ SO ₄, NaCl)
1. Industrial method of receiving chloride ammonium: miss carbon oxide (IV) through ammonia and chloride of sodium. As a result of carrying out reaction the hydrocarbonate of sodium and chloride of ammonium are formed. Reaction takes place in usual conditions without addition of catalysts.NH ₃ +CO ₂ +H₂O+NaCl=NaHCO ₃ +NH₄Cl
2. In NH₄Cl laboratory it is possible to receive at ammonium hydroxide impact on solution of hydrochloric acid. Additional conditions are not required. Carrying out reaction. On the chemical equation calculate what amount of initial substances needs to be taken. Pour the calculated amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in a test tube, add ammonium hydroxide solution. Result. As a result of acid neutralization, hydroxide forms salt (ammonium chloride) and water.NHOH+HCl=NHCl+HO
3. Other laboratory method of receiving – interaction of two salts. Carrying out reaction. Calculate amount of the substances reacting. Measure solution of chloride of sodium and add ammonium sulfate solution. Result. Reaction takes place in two stages. Sulfate of ammonium reacts with sodium chloride. The ion of sodium forces out an ammonium ion from its connection. At an intermediate stage sulfate of sodium which does not participate further in reaction is formed. At the second stage ammonia interacts with solution hydrochloric acid. Visual effect of reaction – release of white smoke. (NH ₄) ₂ SO ₄ +NaCl=Na₂SO ₄ + 2HCl + 2NH ₃↑ HCl+NH ₃ =NH₄Cl For receiving chloride of ammonium in laboratory use the special device to receive the necessary substance in a firm look. Since at temperature increase chloride ammonium breaks up to ammonia and chlorohydrogen.